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  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    History keywords (Investigating the Past - The Middle Ages)

    Primary sources – Come from the time being studied
    Secondary sources – Do not come from the time being studied.
    Bias – One sided
    Artefact – Anything that has been made or used by people.
    Stratigraphy – artefacts found deeper beneath the surface are older than artefacts found above them.
    Carbon dating – Measuring how much carbon is left in the dead plant or animal. Scientists can work out when it died.
    Pollen analysis – Pollen grains can be studied under a microscope.
    Cena – An evening meal in Ancient Rome.
    Tunics – Knee-length dress-like clothes worn by Roman citizens.
    Vomitorium – A room to go to if a Roman ate too much.
    Insulae – Apartment blocks in Ancient Rome.
    Villas – Big country houses.
    Domus – A fine townhouse with shops, a narrow hallway, rectangular area called an atrium with a shallow pool called an impluvium and a garden/patio called a peristylium.
    Stola – Ankle-length dress worn by married women in Ancient Rome.
    Palla – A wrap-like clothing worn by women in Ancient Rome over their heads.
    Patricians – Rich ruling class Romans who did very little work.
    Tepidarium – A warm public bath room in Ancient Rome.
    Caldarium – A steamy hot public bath room in Ancient Rome.
    Frigidarium – A cold public bath room in Ancient Rome.
    Paterfamilias – Father of the household in Ancient Rome.
    Legionaries – Roman soldiers.
    Centuries – A group of soldiers.
    Centurions – Officers controlling centuries.
    Decimated – Every tenth man was taken out and beaten to death.
    Litter – A portable bed for dead people in Ancient Rome.
    Catacombs – Underground tunnels where Romans buried their dead.
    Hunter-gatherers – Ancient Ireland people who gathered berries and hazelnuts and used dogs to help them hunt deer, wild pigs and other animals.
    Court cairns – A Neolithic tomb which had an open area and smaller stones covered the chambers.
    Portal dolmens – A Neolithic tomb which had two or three upright stones called portals and a large capstone on top of the portals called a dolmen.
    Passage grave – A Neolithic tomb which was so called because it consists mainly of a passage that leads to a chamber deep within the grave.
    Bronze – A mixture of copper and tin.
    Torcs – Necklaces that resembled ropes of gold.
    Lunulas – Gold necklaces that looked like the crescent moon.
    Fulacht Fia – An ancient cooking site.
    Wedge tomb – A Bronze Age tomb that look like portal dolmens but were wide and high at one end and low and narrow at the other.
    Cist graves – A Bronze Age tomb with a small rectangular pit lined with stone slabs.
    Standing stones – A Bronze Age tomb with tall standing stones in a circle.
    Dúns – Circular stone forts the Celts lived in.
    Druids – Priests in Ancient Ireland.
    Filí – Poets
    Rí – King
    Tánaiste – The successor to the king.
    Fosterage – When children of nobles were sent to other nobles to be reared and educated.
    Tonsure – A shave on the head, monks got.
    Oratory – The church
    Scriptorium – Where the monks copied manuscripts.
    Abbot – Head of the monastery.
    Refectory – The dining room where monks ate together.
    Round towers – very tall buildings where monks hid away stuff from people like the Vikings.
    Reliquaries – Boxes or shrines used to hold relics or things that belonged to saints.
    Souterrain – A hidden underground tunnel that ran under the outer wall in a ring fort.
    Crannóg – Fortified lake dwellings. It was a small artificial island of stones and earth built on a lake.
    Fief – The land that a vassal got from the king or lord.
    Motte and bailey castles – The motte was a man-made earthen mound and the bailey was large, round yard at the bottom of the hill the motte was on.
    Guild – an organisation controlling crafts
    Papal bulls – official documents that issued instructions in Middle Aged churches
    Friars – New orders of clergy in the Middle Ages

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Household Insurance & Premiums and Claims

    • Insurance is protection against a loss you hope will not happen.
    • Assurance is protection against a loss you know will happen.

    Reasons for Adequate Insurance
    • You must cover all possible risks.
    • You must insure enough to cover full amount of loss.

    • Exclusion clause is situations that cannot be insured.
    • Policy excess/excess clause is that the insured person may have to pay the first €100 of the compensation themselves.
    • Compensation is the money you get when you make a claim.

    Principles of Insurance
    • Insurable interest is when in order to insure something you must benefit from its existence and suffer from its loss.
    • Utmost good faith is when you must tell all relevant information when filling out an application for insurance.
    • Indemnity is when you cannot make a profit from insurance.
    • Contribution is if a risk is insurance with two insurance companies, each will pay half of the compensation.
    • Subrogation passes the legal right of the insured over to the insurer to claim from a third party who caused the loss.

    Average Clause
    • If you only insure an item for a fraction of the value, you only get the same fraction compensation.
    • Formula: Sum insured X claim = compensation

    • Proposal form: Application form for insurance
    • Policy: Contract of insurance
    • Cover note: Temporary policy
    • Certificate of insurance: Proof of insurance
    • Claim form: A form you fill out when a loss occurs and you want compensation.

    People in Insurance
    • Broker: Gives advice on insurance and sells insurance on behalf of lots of companies
    • Agent: Sells insurance for only one company
    • Actuary: Calculates insurance premiums
    • Loss adjuster: Calculates the value of the loss and works for the insurance company
    • Loss assessor: Calculates the value of the loss and represents the insured

    Steps Involved in Taking Out Insurance
    1. Decide what risks you want covered.
    2. Fill out proposal form.
    3. Pay your premium.
    4. File your policy in a safe place.

    Steps Involved in Making a Claim
    1. Contact guards and insurance company.
    2. Obtain estimates of lost/stolen items.
    3. Fill out claim form.
    4. Talk to assessor and agree on compensation.

    Premium Calculation Terms
    • Premium is the cost of insurance.
    • Risk effects are things that cause premiums to be high or low.
    • Loading is extra premium for a higher risk.
    • Discount is money taken off premium for a lower risk.
    • No claims bonus is when you get a discount if you did not claim for any accidents the previous year.
    • Renewal date is the date you must have your premium paid by.
    • Days of grace may be given to you. They are a few extra days to pay your premium.

    Types of Personal Insurance
    • PRSI (Pay Related Social Insurance) is the statutory deduction from your salary.
    • Medical insurance is used in case you get sick or need an operation immediately.
    • Personal accident insurance covers people who are injured due to an accident.
    • Salary protection provides an income in case you can’t work due to illness.
    • Pension plan provides you with lump sum and income for your retirement.
    • Holiday insurance provides you with health care if you get sick on holidays.

    Types of Business Insurance
    • Theft insurance: Theft of equipment and stock
    • Fire insurance: Damage to premises, equipment and stock
    • Consequential loss: Covers the firm for loss of profits while a business is closed as a result of fire or flood
    • Fidelity guarantee: Compensates an employer for loss of cash arising from dishonest workers
    • Cash in transit: Covers theft of cash while in transit between the business and back
    • Goods in transit: Covers theft or damage to goods while been transported
    • Motor insurance: Compulsory covers damage or injury caused by motor vehicles
    • Employers liability: Employees injured at work
    • Public liability: Customers injured while visiting the business
    • Product liability: Injury to customers using the product
    • Bad debts: Loss due to customers not paying their debts

    Reasons for Business Insurance
    • Protection of assets against fire and theft
    • Protection against legal action as a result of accidents to the public or staff
    • Legal reasons – motor insurance

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Introduction to Economics

    Economics is the study of how people and businesses with limited income make decisions about what they spend their money on.

    Factors of Production
    Land is the natural resources available in a country that can be used to produce goods and services. The payment for land is rent.
    Labour is a human effort that helps to produce goods and services. The payment for labour is wages.
    Capital is anything that is made by humans that is then used to help to produce other goods and services. The payment for capital is interest.
    Enterprise is using all the factors of production and taking a risk to set up a business. People who supply enterprise are called entrepreneurs. The payment for enterprise is profit.

    Types of Economic Systems
    Centrally planned economy – Here the government of the economy makes all the decisions about the production of goods and services. E.g. Cuba.
    Free enterprise economy – Here the citizens of the country are free to make all the decisions about the production of goods and services with little interference from the government. E.g. USA.
    Mixed economy – This is a combination of the two other economies and sees a sharing approach to the production of goods and services. E.g. Ireland.

    Opportunity cost is the item we do without when we have to make a choice between two or more actions. It is impossible to satisfy everybody’s needs and wants.
    Inflation is the increase in the general level of the price of goods and services over a period of time.
    Deflation is the decrease in the general level of the price of goods and services over a period of time.

    Rate of Inflation
    (The increase in prices in year 2)/(The level of prices in year 1) X 100
    The official measurement of inflation is called the consumer price index.

    Causes of Inflation
    An increase in the cost of producing goods is passed onto the consumer so that the manufacturer can maintain profits.
    The demand for goods is greater than the supply of goods. Consumers will compete with each other, thus pushing up the prices.
    The cost of importing goods increases.
    Increases in indirect taxes.

    Effects of Inflation
    Increases the cost of living.
    It causes demands for wage increases to compensate for the inflation.
    It discourages saving because people decide to spend their money before its value decreases any further.

    Economic growth occurs when more goods are produced in a country one year than were produced the previous year. It creates employment and improves standard of living.
    Gross domestic product is a total amount of goods and services produced in an economy in one period.
    Gross national product is the GDP – profits sent out of the country by foreign owned companies located in the country, plus profits returned to the local firms based abroad. i.e. it is the amount of money left in the country for spending or saving.
    Recession is if less goods and services are produced in two consecutive quarters then the national economy is officially in a recession.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    The National Budget

    Why does the Government get involved in the economy?
    • To provide merit goods
    • To provide sociably desirable goods or services
    • To provide income for people who can’t work
    • To make regulations for the running of the country
    • To provide services that are too important to be controlled by the private sector

    What is the National Budget?
    • The national budget is the government’s estimate of its income and expenditure for the coming year.
    • It takes place in November or December each year.
    • The Minister for Finance is Michael Noonan.

    Budget Divided into Two Sections
    1. Government current expenditure is spending by the government on the provision of goods and services that will be totally consumed in that year.
    2. Government capital expenditure is spending by the government on assets that will benefit the country for some year into the future.

    Sources of Expenditure
    • Current expenditure (Social welfare, salaries, teachers, health services)
    • Capital expenditure (Building new schools, roads, hospitals)

    Sources of Income
    • Current income (PAYE, VAT, stamp duty, custom duty, DIRT)
    • Capital income (Income from semi-state bodies and EU grants)

    Types of Current Budgets
    • A balanced current budget (Income = expenditure)
    • A surplus budget (Income > expenditure)
    • A deficit budget (Income < expenditure)

    The Exchequer Balance
    • The difference between total government revenue and total government expenditure in any one year.

    National Debt
    • National debt is if a government has to borrow money to pay for its spending then the amount borrowed is added to the national debt. Total amount of money owed by the government at any given time.
    • Debt servicing is the interest payment on the national debt that the government pays to its lenders.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Foreign Trade

    Imports and Exports
    • Foreign trade is the sale of products and services from one country to another.
    • Importing is the purchase of goods and services from other countries for sale in Ireland.
    • Exporting is when Irish goods and services are sold to other countries.

    Invisible and Visible Trade
    • Visible trade is the import or export of physical goods.
    • Invisible trade is the import or export of services.

    Reasons for Importing Goods
    • Ireland does not have natural resources that are necessary for everyday living.
    • Ireland’s climate is not suitable for growing certain products.
    • Skills and traditions that are needed to produce some goods are only available in certain countries.
    • Certain goods are not produced in Ireland, so if we want to have them, we must import them,

    Reasons for Exporting Goods
    • Some courtiers are not able to produce large quantities of food products because their land or climate is unsuitable.
    • Some goods can only be manufactured in a certain country because the skills and traditions are only available here.
    • Countries do this to increase their sales and profits.

    The Balance of Trade
    • The balance of trade is the difference between the visible exports and the visible imports of a country.
    • The formula is: Visible exports – visible imports.

    The Balance of Payments
    • The balance of payments is the difference between the total exports and the total imports of a country.
    • The formula is: Visible exports + invisible exports; visible imports + invisible imports; total exports – total imports.

    Exchange Rate
    • An exchange rate is the quantity of a foreign currency that can be bought or sold for one euro.
    • Foreign currencies can be bought or sold in banks.

    Import Substitution
    • Trying to reduce imports by encouraging Irish people and firms to buy Irish goods instead of imported goods.

    The European Union
    • Ireland joined the EU in 1973.
    • There were 9 countries in it at that time.
    • Today there are 28 members.
    • The business of the EU is carried out by EU and the European Commission.
    • Croatia is the newest member.

    Benefits of EU Membership
    • Irish firms can sell their products/services in a huge market and this has increased their sales and profits.
    • Irish people are allowed to live or work in any of the other member states.
    • Ireland has received large amounts of money in the form of grants from the EU.
    • Many firms have located in Ireland because we are a member of the EU.
    Enterprise Ireland
    • Enterprise Ireland is the state agency that offers advice, information and support to firms that are or wish to get involved in foreign trade.

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  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Forms of Business

    Types of Businesses

    Sole Trader
    • A person that owns and runs their own business.
    • Characteristics: one person provides all the money, makes all the decisions and keeps all the profit.
    • Advantages: Easy to set up, keep all the profits, make all the decisions, personal contact with customers.
    • Disadvantages: Unlimited liability (if your business fails you could lose all your own personal wealth), suffer all losses yourself, business ends when the owner dies.

    Private Limited Company (Ltd.)
    • A business that is owned by 1-99 people.
    • Characteristics: 1-99 owners called shareholders, shares cannot be bought by the general public, shareholders receive a vote for every share they own, must have ltd. after its name, shareholders receive a share of the profits called a dividend and is usually owned by solicitors and accountants.
    • Advantages: Limited liability (If the business fails, you can only lose the money that you invested in the company. Your own personal wealth cannot be touched), business continues even when an owner dies, easier to raise finance as you have up to 99 shareholders.
    • Disadvantages: Legal documents are needed to set up a company, more costly to set up, decision making and profits are shared.

    • A business owned and run by its members.
    • Each member has an equal say in the running of the business.
    • Characteristics: Each member must buy at least one share and each member has only one vote.
    • Advantages: Democratic as each member has an equal say, the members of the co-operatives have limited liability.
    • Disadvantages: For members who own a lot of shares, they only get one vote and profits are shared in the form of dividends.
    Types of Co-Operatives
    • Producer co-op > Owned and run by the customers of the co-op.
    • Retail co-ops > A group of retails join together.
    • Worker co-ops > Owned by the workers in the business.

    State Owned Business
    • A business which is set up, financed and controlled by the government.
    • Another name for this is a semi-state body.
    • Characteristics: A government minister is responsible for each state company, they appoint a board of directors and the government keeps the profits or re-invests it in the company.
    • Advantages: Ensure that essential services are provided for all people in the country and provide employment to a large number of people.
    • Disadvantages: Some are in a monopoly position which means that they have no competition and this can lead to in-efficiency and higher prices and some make losses which are covered by the tax payer.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Hopefully ya can understand this but this is an example of a solution to a Trading, Profit & Loss and Appreciation Account and Balance Sheet question in Business Studies which you are definitely gonna get on the paper.

    First picture is the T, P&L and A Account and second one is the Balance Sheet btw.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    An essay on Mid-Term Break by Seamus Heaney

    Of all the poems I have explored, Seamus Heaney’s “Mid-Term Break” is the most engaging. This poignant poem recalls an incident in Heaney’s own childhood: The death of his baby brother, Christopher.

    The poem opens with Heaney “counting bells knelling classes to a close”, as he waits in the school to be taken home. The use of the word “knelling” is interesting as usually the word is used to describe a funeral bell: Heaney is obviously thinking of his brother’s passing.

    Heaney skilfully takes the reader with him “In the porch I met my father crying”. The use of the pun “Big Jim” is unfortunate because he metaphorically means a big “blow”. Heaney’s mother is so shocked that she cannot cry, only able to cough out “angry tearless sighs”.

    The use of such personal pronouns such as “him”, “his” and “he” reveals Heaney’s love for his brother. Heaney creates a sad pause at the end of stanza 6: “paler now” before the next stanza. He describes little has changed since Christopher died in his appearance but the difference is his paler complexion and his “poppy bruise”. The line “A four foot box, a foot for every year” is the most heartbreaking line of the poem. Heaney’s brother was only a baby, and his life should have not been cut short when he was so young.

    Death is a sad event for any family to experience. The death of a child is especially tragic. Heaney’s ‘Mid-Term Break’ is certainly a difficult poem to read, due to the poem exploring the death of a child. However, it is a poem that has made me appreciate my family, my childhood and my own life, and for this I am grateful.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Some of the French irregular verbs in the present tense form


    Je suis
    Tu es
    Il est
    Elle est
    Nous sommes
    Vous êtes
    Ils sont
    Elles sont


    Tu as
    Il a
    Elle a
    Nous avons
    Vous avez
    Ils ont
    Elles ont


    Je vais
    Tu vas
    Il va
    Elle va
    Nous allons
    Vous allez
    Ils vont
    Elles vont


    Je fais
    Tu fais
    Il fait
    Elle fait
    Nous faisons
    Vous faites
    Ils font
    Elles font


    Je veux
    Tu veux
    Il veut
    Elle veut
    Nous voulons
    Vous voulez
    Ils veulent
    Elles veulent

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Geography notes on Clouds and Weather by me

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  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Global warming notes for Geography. Also can be used for Fuels in the Science course.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Hot Desert Climates notaí

    Hot desert climates are generally found in very warm deserts such as the Sahara Desert, the Kalahari Desert, the Arabian Desert and the Australian Outback.
    They consist of a one season climate generally. Temperatures average 30−50°C during the day but rapidly drop to as low as 5°C during the night.
    Reasons for this large temperature range:
    The absence of cloud cover and vegetation meant that there is a rapid loss of heat at night.
    Night is said to be the 'winter of the desert'.
    Rainfall is very rare with an annual total of less than 100mm. This means that it frequently gets threatened by droughts.
    Luxor and Aswan in Egypt had the longest-drought ever with NO RAINFALL from 2001-2014.
    These droughts though soon be avoided by sudden downpours.
    Vegetation is very little due to the shortage of moisture. It consists of cactus, date palm and Joshua trees.
    Rattlesnakes, desert foxes and jack-rabbits lived in these climates.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Business Finance

    Short-term sources of finance
    1. Bank overdraft
    • Extra money into your current account. The bank must be repaid the same amount.
    2. Trade creditors
    • A person/firm to whom a business owes money. There is no interest charge. The firm may lose out on cash discounts given for early payment.
    3. Expenses due
    • Pay bills at end of the month

    Medium-term sources of finance
    1. Term loan
    • A loan which is repaid over a fixed period of time between 1 and 5 years. Both loan and interest are repaid in equal instalments.
    2. Leasing
    • A firm agrees with a financial institution to pay an agreed sum of money each month in return for the use of an asset. The firm never owns the asset and the firm may end up paying more in the long term than the asset is worth.
    3. Hire purchase
    • The hire purchase agreement involves three parties – the buyer, the seller and the finance company. The finance company pays the seller in full for the asset and then collects the money in instalments from the buyer over an agreed period of time.

    Long-term sources of finance
    1. Equity capital (Issue of ordinary shares)
    • The company sells shares in the business to raise money. Dividends may be paid to the shareholders out of the profits each year. No interest has to be paid on the money raised. Each new shareholder has a say in the running of the company.
    2. Retained earnings (Reserves)
    • Here, some of the profits made are kept in the business to pay for future expansion. There is no cost to this type of finance.
    3. Sale and leaseback
    • Here, fixed assets are sold to raise finance for the firm and then leased back over a long period of time. The firm gets to keep full use of the asset and also receives a much needed cash injection. The firm no longer owns the asset and so will not benefit from any increase in value.
    4. Long-term loan
    • The loan and interest is paid back in equal instalments over the length of the loan.
    5. Grants
    • A non-repayable source of finance from the Government or EU.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen


    Communication is the transfer of data from one person to another.

    Types of Communication
    Internal – With people inside the organisation.
    External – Between the organisation and people outside.

    Factors to Consider When Choosing A Method of Communication
    Cost – Is the method cheap or dear?
    Speed – How long will it take to reach its destination?
    Secrecy – Is the method confidential?
    Record – Will a copy of the information exist?
    Destination – How far is it going?

    Methods of Communication

    1. Oral/Verbal
    Sending a verbal message
    Internal: intercom, face-to-face meeting
    External: radio, telephone
    Advantages: Quick, instant feedback
    Disadvantages: No record, may be hard to remember

    2. Written
    Some record is kept
    Internal: notice board, memo
    External: letter, e-mail, fax
    Advantages: Record kept, don’t have to remember anything
    Disadvantages: No instant feedback, may not be confidential

    3. Visual
    Using charts, graphs, videos, powerpoints and TV to give messages internally and externally.
    Advantages: Easy to understand, shows trends and comparisons
    Disadvantages: Some people may not understand, takes time to prepare

    A short note used within a business.

    A Notice of a Meeting
    Info. about a meeting
    Sent by the secretary

    An Agenda
    A list of topics that will be discussed at a meeting.

    Types of Meetings
    AGM: Annual General Meeting
    EGM: Extraordinary General Meeting
    Ad-hoc: Informal meeting on the spur of the moment

    Calls the meeting to order
    Ensures that meetings run smoothly

    Sends out notices of meetings
    Writes up the Agenda
    Keeps minutes

    Keeps a record of all finances
    Prepares final accounts
    Prepares financial reports

    Rules for preparing graphs/charts
    Give it a title
    Label the Y axis
    Label the X axis

    Bar Chart
    Is a series of bars
    Used for comparing quantities

    Line/Trend Graph
    Is a chart that uses lines
    Used for showing changes over time

    Pie Charts
    Is a circle divided into segments
    Used to show percentages or proportions
    Find out by using the formula below
    (The value of the item you're trynna figure out)/(The total of the values) X 360

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Chain of Production and Channels of Distribution

    Chain of Production
    • The various production or processing stages that a good or service goes through before it is sold to the consumer.

    Sectors Involved in Manufacturing and Distribution of Products
    • The primary sector – These industries can take material from the land or the sea.
    • The secondary sector – This is the manufacturing and construction sector of the economy.
    • The tertiary sector – Made up of firms that provide services to all other sectors of the economy.

    Primary sector
    • These industries can take material from the land or the sea.

    Secondary sector
    • The firms in this sector use the goods produced by the primary sector and change them into finished products.

    Tertiary sector
    • The firms provide services in this sector to consumers.

    Channels of Distribution
    • Are the methods used to transfer finished goods from manufacturers to consumers.
    1. Manufacturer > Consumer
    2. Manufacturer > Retailer > Consumer
    3. Manufacturer > Wholesaler > Retailer > Consumer
    4. Manufacturer > Wholesaler > Jobber > Retailer > Consumer

    • A special type of wholesaler and only sells one type of item.

    • A wholesaler is a company or person that buys large quantities of goods from many manufacturers and sells them in smaller quantities to retailers.

    Cash and Carry Wholesalers
    • Located in most large towns.
    • Differ from traditional wholesalers in the following ways:
    1. They do not give credit.
    2. They do not deliver goods.
    3. They operate on a self service basis.
    4. Their prices tend to be lower than traditional wholesalers because:
    • They are paid cash for goods.
    • They do not have to invest in delivery trucks.
    • Less staff is required due to self service.

    • A franchise exists when the owners of a business give permission to another person to set up a branch and their business in another location in return for a fee.

    • A retailer is somebody who sells finished goods to consumers.
    • They buy goods in bulk and sell them in single units or small quantities to consumers.

    Types of Retailers

    Retailer Description Examples
    Unit or independent retailers Small privately owned shops Toys ‘r’ Us
    Voluntary groups Group of retailers who agree to buy their stock from one particular wholesaler only Centra, Spar, Mace
    Supermarkets Large shops Tesco, Dunnes Stores
    Chain stores Many branches worldwide Walmart
    Multiple stores Specialise in one good Elverys, Waltons
    Department stores A number of shops under one roof Arnotts, Debenhams
    Discount stores Sells a limited range of products at low prices Power City, Dealz, EuroGiant
    Vending machines Automated retail devices that sell chocolate, drinks and crisps

    Functions of Retailers
    1. Provide a wide range of goods to consumers.
    2. Sells goods to consumers in small quantities.
    3. Offer advice to consumers on certain products.
    4. Offer advice to wholesalers and manufacturers on changes in consumer trends.
    5. Create demand for goods through their own advertising.

    Recent Trends in Retailing in Ireland
    • The arrival of International discount stores in the grocery and related industry.
    • Major growth in the number of shopping centres and retail outlets.
    • Greater use of e-commerce. i.e. selling goods and services over the internet.
    • Growth of farmers market – big demand for organic goods.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen


    Bonjour/Salut = Hello
    Quel âge avez-vous? = What age are you?
    Où habitez-vous? = Where do you live?
    Bonsoir = Good night
    Bonjour = Good day
    Au revoir = See you later
    À bientôt = See you soon
    Bienvenue = Welcome
    Comment tu t’appelles? = What is your name?
    Comment allez-vous? = How are you?
    Excusez-moi = Excuse me
    Ça va = How’s it going?
    Merci = Thank you
    Félicitations = Congratulations

    Days of the week

    Lundi = Monday
    Mardi = Tuesday
    Mercredi = Wednesday
    Jeudi = Thursday
    Vendredi = Friday
    Samedi = Saturday
    Dimanche = Sunday

    Months of the year

    janvier = January
    février = February
    mars = March
    avril = April
    mai = May
    juin = June
    juillet = July
    août = August
    septembre = September
    octobre = October
    novembre = November
    décembre = December


    Le printemps = Spring
    L’éte = Summer
    L’automne = Autumn
    L’hiver = Winter


    Jaune = Yellow
    Noir = Black
    Violet = Purple
    Rosé = Pink
    Blanc = White
    Orange = Orange
    Rouge = Red
    Vert = Green
    Marron = Brown
    Clair = Light
    Foncé = Dark
    Gris = Gray


    Un = One
    Deux = Two
    Trois = Three
    Quatre = Four
    Cinq = Five
    Six = Six
    Sept = Seven
    Huit = Eight
    Neuf = Nine
    Dix = Ten
    Onze = Eleven
    Douze = Twelve
    Treize = Thirteen
    Quatorze = Fourteen
    Quinze = Fifteen
    Seize = Sixteen
    Dix-sept = Seventeen
    Dix-huit = Eighteen
    Dix-neuf = Nineteen
    Vingt = Twenty
    Vingt et-un = Twenty-one
    Trente = Thirty
    Quarante = Forty
    Cinquante = Fifty
    Soixante = Sixty
    Soixante-dix = Seventy
    Quatre-vingts = Eighty
    Quatre-vingt-dix = Ninety
    Cent = One hundred
    Deux cents = Two hundred
    Trois cents = Three hundred
    Quatre cents = Four hundred
    Cinq cents = Five hundred
    Six cents = Six hundred
    Sept cents = Seven hundred
    Huit cents = Eight hundred
    Neuf cents = Nine hundred
    Mille = One thousand


    La viande – meat
    L’agneau – lamb
    Le bacon – bacon
    Le saucisson – sausage
    Le jambon – ham
    Le foie – liver
    Le bœuf – beef
    La dinde – turkey
    Le canard – duck
    Le porc – pork
    Le veau – veal
    Le steak-haché – minced steak
    Le poulet – chicken
    Le lapin – rabbit


    La banane – banana
    La pomme – apple
    L’orange – orange
    La poire – pear
    Le melon – melon
    La datte – date
    Le pamplemousse – grapefruit
    Le raisin – grape
    La cerise – cherry
    Le citron – lemon
    Le citron vert – lime
    La fraise – strawberry
    La framboise – raspberry
    La mûre – blackberry
    La myrtille – blueberry
    La pastèque – watermelon
    La pêche – peach
    La prune – plum
    Le abricot – apricot
    Le ananas – pineapple


    Le artichaut – artichoke
    Les asperges – asparagus
    La aubergine – eggplant
    La carotte – carrot
    Le céleri – celery
    Le champignon – mushroom
    Le chou-fleur – cauliflower
    Le concombre – cucumber
    Les épinards – spinach
    Le haricot – bean
    La laitue – lettuce
    Le oignon – onion
    Le maïs – corn
    Les petits pois – peas
    La pomme de terre – potato
    Le radis – radish
    La tomate - tomato


    L’ours – bear
    Le chameau – camel
    Le poulet – chicken
    Le crocodile – crocodile
    Le cerf – deer
    Le dauphin – dolphin
    La baleine – whale
    L’âne – donkey
    Le canard – duck
    L’aigle – eagle
    La grenouille – frog
    L’éléphant – elephant
    La girafe – giraffe
    La chèvre – goat
    Le lion – lion
    Le singe – monkey
    Le souris – mouse
    Le cochon – pig
    Le lapin – rabbit
    Le rat – rat
    Le requin – shark
    Le mouton – sheep
    Le serpent – snake
    L’écureuil – squirrel
    Le loup – wolf
    La panthère – panther
    Le tigre – tiger
    La chauve-souris – bat
    Le castor – beaver
    Le buffle – buffalo
    Le renard – fox
    Le kangourou – kangaroo
    Le koala – koala
    L’élan – moose
    L’oiseau – bird
    La vache – cow
    Le chien – dog
    Le cheval – horse
    Le chat – cat
    Le poisson – fish
    Le poisson-rouge – goldfish
    Le papillon – butterfly

    Family members

    Le père – The father
    La mère – The mother
    La sœur – The sister
    Le frère – The brother
    L’enfant – The child
    Le fils – The son
    Les parents – The parents
    Le cousin – The cousin (male)
    La cousine – The cousin (female)
    L’oncle – The uncle
    La tante – The aunt
    Le grand−père – The grandfather
    La grand−mère – The grandmother
    Les grand−parents – The grandparents
    Le beau−père – The stepfather
    La belle−mère – The stepmother
    Le bébé – The baby


    La voiture – car
    L’avion – airplane
    Le car – coach
    L’autobus – bus
    Le bateau – boat
    Le vélo – bicycle
    Le camion – lorry/truck
    La camionnette – van
    Le taxi – taxi
    Le train – train
    Le vélomoteur – motorbike
    Le hélicoptère – helicopter
    Le hovercraft – hovercraft


    Il fait chaud – It is hot
    Il fait froid – It is cold
    Il fait mauvais – It is bad
    Il y a du soleil – It is sunny
    Il fait beau – It is nice
    Il y a du vent – It is windy
    Il y a du brouillard – It is foggy
    Il fait orageux – It is stormy
    Il pleut – It’s raining
    Il neige – It’s snowing
    Il fait humide – It is humid
    Il fait nuageux – It is cloudy
    La grêle – The hail
    La glace – The ice
    L’éclair – The lightning

    The body

    Les amygdales – tonsils
    L’appendice – appendix
    La bouche – mouth
    Le bras – arm
    La cheville – ankle
    Le cœur – heart
    Le cou – neck
    Le coude – elbow
    Les dents – teeth
    Le derrière – bottom
    Le doigt – finger
    L’épaule – shoulder
    L’estomac – stomach
    Le front – forehead
    Le genou – knee
    La gorge – throat
    La jambe – leg
    La langue – tongue
    Les lèvres – lips
    La main – hand
    Le nez – nose
    L’œil – eye
    L’ongle – nail
    L’oreille – ear
    L’orteil – toe
    Le pied – foot
    Le poignet – wrist
    La poitrine – chest
    Le pouce – thumb
    Le poumon – lung
    La tête – head
    Le ventre – stomach
    Les yeux – eyes

    Pencil case

    La trousse – pencil case
    L’agrafeuse – stapler
    La colle – glue
    La calculatrice – calculator
    Les ciseaux – scissors
    Le compas – compass
    Le crayon – pencil
    Les crayons de couleurs – coloured pencils
    Le feutre – marker
    La gomme – eraser
    La règle – ruler
    Le surligneur fluo – highlighter
    Le stylo – pen
    Le stylo correcteur – correcting pen (tip-ex)
    Le taille−crayon - sharpener

    Clothes and accessories

    Des baskets – runners
    Des bijoux – jewellery
    Des bottes – boots
    Des chaussettes – socks
    Des chaussures – shoes
    La chemise – shirt
    Le chemisier – blouse
    La cravate – tie
    Les gants – gloves
    Le jean – jeans
    La jupe – skirt
    Le manteau – coat
    Le pantalon – trousers
    Le pull-over – jumper
    Le pyjama – pyjamas
    La robe – dress
    Le sac à main – handbag
    Le survêtement – tracksuit
    Le tee-shirt – t-shirt
    La veste - jacket


    Le acteur – actor
    La actrice – actress
    Le artiste – artist
    Le boulanger – baker
    Le boucher – butcher
    Le charpentier – carpenter
    Le caissier – cashier
    Le fonctionnaire – civil servant
    Le chef – cook/chef
    Le dentiste – dentist
    Le médecin – doctor
    Le électricien – electrician
    Le employé – employee
    Le ingénieur – engineer
    Le pompier – fireman
    L’avocat – lawyer
    La femme de chambre – maid
    Le gérant – manager
    Le mécanicien – mechanic
    L’infirmier – nurse
    Le peintre – painter
    Le pharmacien – pharmacist
    Le plombier – plumber
    Le policier – police officer
    Le réceptionniste – receptionist
    Le secrétaire – secretary
    Le étudiant – student
    Le professeur – teacher
    Le serveur – waiter
    Le écrivain – writer
    Le serveuse – waitress
    Le pilote – pilot
    L’athlète – athlete
    Le journaliste - journalist

    Shops and buildings

    La banque – bank
    La bibliothèque – library
    La bijouterie – jeweller’s
    La boucherie – butcher’s
    La boulangerie – bakery
    Le café – cafe
    Le camping – campsite
    La cathédrale – cathedral
    Le centre sportif – sports centre
    La charcuterie – pork butcher’s
    La chocolaterie – chocolate shop
    Le cinéma – cinema
    Le club des jeunes – youth club
    Le coiffeur – barber
    La confiserie – sweet shop
    La cour de justice – court
    L’église – church
    La galerie – gallery
    La gare - station
    La gare routière – bus station
    La gendarmerie – police station
    L’hôpital – hospital
    L’hôtel de ville – town hall
    La librairie – book shop
    La mairie – town hall
    La maison de la presse – newsagent
    Le marchand de chaussures – shoe shop
    Le marchand de fruits – fruit seller
    Le musée – museum
    L’office du tourisme – tourist office
    La pâtisserie – cake shop
    Le théâtre – theatre
    Le supermarché – supermarket
    La piscine – swimming pool
    La pharmacie – chemist
    Le stade – stadium
    Le restaurant - restaurant

    School subjects

    L’anglais – English
    Les mathématiques – Maths
    La français – French
    L’espagnol – Spanish
    L’allemand – German
    La science – Science
    La physique – Physics
    La chimie – Chemistry
    La biologie – Biology
    L’informatique – Computing (Computers)
    Le dessin – Art
    La musique – Music
    La géographie – Geography
    L’histoire – History
    L’éducation physique et sportive (EPS) – PE
    La religion – Religion
    Les études commerciales – Business studies


    L’Angleterre – England
    Le Royaume-Uni – United Kingdom
    La Grande-Bretagne – Great Britain
    La France – France
    L’Allemagne – Germany
    Les Pays-Bas – Netherlands
    L’Espagne – Spain
    Le Portugal – Portugal
    L’Italie – Italy
    La Grèce – Greece
    La Suisse – Switzerland
    L’Autriche – Austria
    La Belgique – Belgium
    La Pologne – Poland
    Les États-Unis – United States of America
    Le Canada – Canada
    L’Australie – Australia
    La Nouvelle-Zélande – New Zealand
    L’Irlande – Ireland
    La Finlande – Finland
    La Suède – Sweden
    La Norvège – Norway
    Le Danemark – Denmark
    L’Islande – Iceland
    Le Japon – Japan
    La Chine – China
    L’Inde – India
    L’Égypte – Egypt
    La Turquie – Turkey
    La Russie – Russia
    L’Algérie – Algeria
    L’Écosse – Scotland
    La Hongrie – Hungary
    Le Maroc – Morocco
    Le Mexique – Mexico
    Le Pays de Galles – Wales
    La République Tchèque – Czech Republic
    La Slovénie – Slovenia
    La Tunisie - Tunisia


    Allez tout droite – Go straight ahead
    Tournez à droite – Turn right
    Tournez à gauche – Turn left
    À droite – Right
    À gauche – Left
    Prenez la premiere rue – Take the first street
    Prenez la premiere rue à droite – Take the first street on the right
    Prenez la premiere rue à gauche – Take the first street on the left
    Prenez la deuxième rue à droite – Take the second street on the right
    Prenez la deuxième rue à gauche – Take the second street on the left
    Prenez la troisième rue à droite – Take the third street on the right
    Prenez la troisième rue à gauche – Take the third street on the left
    C’est à droite – It’s on the right
    C’est à gauche – It’s on the left

    Past times / sports

    L’athlétisme – Athletics
    La boxe – Boxing
    L’équitation – Horse riding
    Le footing – Jogging
    La lutte – Wrestling
    La natation – Swimming
    La planche à voile – Wind surfing
    La plongée – Diving
    Le ski – Skiing
    Le vélo – Cycling
    La voile – Sailing

    In the past

    Il y a deux heures – Two hours ago
    Récemment – Recently
    Hier – Yesterday
    Hier soir – Last night
    Avant-hier – Before yesterday
    Mardi dernier – Last Tuesday
    La semaine dernière – Last week
    Le mois dernier – Last month
    L’année dernière – Last year
    En 2000 – In 2000
    Au printemps de 2000 – In the Spring of 2000
    Pendant l’hiver de l’an 2000 – During the Winter of 2000
    Au mois de septembre de 2000 – In the month of September 2000

    The clock

    Il est ____ heures – It is _____ o’clock
    Il est ____ heures cinq – It is five past ___
    Il est ____ heures dix – It is ten past ___
    Il est ____ heures le quart – It is quarter past ___
    Il est ____ heures vingt – It is twenty past ___
    Il est ____ heures vingt-cinq – It is twenty five past ___
    Il est ____ heures et demie – It is half past ___
    Il est ____ heures moins vingt-cinq – It is twenty five to ___
    Il est ____ heures moins vingt – It is twenty to ___
    Il est ____ heures moins le quart – It is quarter to ___
    Il est ____ heures moins dix – It is ten to ___
    Il est ____ heures moins cinq – It is five to ___

    Postcard sentences

    Me voici en France – Here I am in France
    Il fait chaud – It is hot
    Tout va bien à l’école – All is well in school
    Je suis à la campagne – I am in the countryside
    Je suis au centre ville – I am in the city centre
    L'endroit est beau – The place is fine
    Je suis avec ma famille – I am with my family
    Je passe une semaine ici – I am spending a week here
    Dis bonjour à tout de ma part – Say hello to everybody for me
    Je vais partir samedi prochain – I’m leaving next Saturday
    Je vais à la plage – I’m going to the beach
    J’adore la cuisine française – I love the French food
    Je vais à la plage tous les jours – I go to the beach everyday
    Je suis allé – I went....
    Je te téléphonerai quand je rentrerai chez moi – I will call when I get home


    Le beurre – Butter
    La crème – Cream
    L’eau – Water
    La fairne – Flour
    Le fromage – Cheese
    Le gingembre – Ginger
    L’huile – Oil
    Le lait – Milk
    Le miel – Honey
    L’œuf – Egg
    Les pâtes – Pasta
    Le persil – Parsley
    Le piment – Chili peppers
    Le poivre – Peppers
    Le sel – Salt
    Le sucre – Sugar


    Le cabillaud – Cod
    Le poisson – Fish
    Le carrelet – Plaice
    Le crabe – Crab
    Le homard – Lobster
    Les huîtres – Oysters
    Les moules – Mussels
    Le saumon – Salmon
    Le thon – Tuna


    Les grandes vacances – The Summer holidays
    Les vacances de Pâques – The Easter holidays
    Les vacances de Noël – The Christmas holidays
    À la campagne – In the country
    À l’etranger – Abroad
    Au bord de la mer – By the sea
    Faire du camping – To go camping
    Je vais partir en vacances – To go on holidays
    Je vais nager dans la mer – To swim in the sea
    Je vais sortir à la discothèque – To go out to the disco
    Je vais se bronzer à la plage – To sunbathe at the beach
    Je vais rester dans un hôtel – To stay in a hotel
    Nous allons prendre l’avion – We are going to take the plane


    À côté de – next to
    Après – after
    Au bord de – on the edge of
    Avec – with
    Chez – at the house of
    Dans – in
    De – of/from
    Devant – in front of
    Derrière – behind
    En face de – opposite
    Entre – between
    Loin de – far from
    Par – by/through
    Pour – for
    Près de – near
    Sous – under
    Sur - on

    The station

    Le guichet – Ticket office
    Le quai – Platform
    La salle d’attente – Waiting room
    Les voyageurs – Passengers
    L’ascenseur – Lift
    La ligne – Operating company
    Le réseau – Rail network
    La correspondance – Connection
    Le train à grand vitesse (TGV) – High speed train
    Un carnet – A book of tickets
    Le pass Navigo – Oyster card
    Réserver – To reserve
    Un trajet – Journey
    Un aller – Single
    Un aller retour – Return
    La première classe – First class
    Les tarifs/Les prix – Ticket prices
    Un remboursement – Refund
    Composter votre billet – Validate your ticket
    Les arrivés – Arrivals
    Les départs – Departures
    En provenance de – Leaving from
    A destination de – Going to
    À l’heure – On time
    Un retard – Delay
    La circulation – Traffic
    Les travaux – Engineering works
    Une grève – Strike
    Une place – Seat
    La voiture buffet – Buffet car
    Un arret – A stop


    L'art = Art
    L'artiste = Artist
    Le peintre = Painter
    Le chevalet = Easel
    La palette = Palette
    Le fusain = Charcoal
    L'encre = Ink
    L'argile = Clay
    La poterie = Pottery
    La toile = Canvas
    Le pinceau = Brush
    Le dessin = Drawing
    Le tableau = Painting
    Les couleurs = Paints/Colours
    Le carnet à croquis = Sketch pad
    La sculpture = Sculpting
    Le bois = Wood
    Le croquis = Sketch


    Le bébé = Baby
    La naissance = Birth
    Le nouveau-né = Newborn baby
    La sucette = Pacifier
    La grossesse = Pregnancy
    Les vêtements pour bébés = Baby clothes
    Le landau = Pram
    La nourriture pour bébés = Baby food
    Le nourrisson = Infant
    Les prénoms pour bébés = Baby names
    Le bambin = Toddler
    Le lit de bébé = Crib/cot
    Le chaise haut = High chair


    Le camping = Camping
    Camper = To camp (regular verb)
    Le sac à dos = Backpack
    La tente = Tent
    Le terrain de camping = Campsite
    Le sac de couchage = Sleeping bag
    Les poubelles = Trash cans
    Le camping-car = Camping van
    Le feu de camp = Campfire
    La lampe/torche = Flashlight/torch
    La caravane = Caravan
    Le barbecue = Barbecue

    Valentine's Day

    Le jour de la Saint-Valentin = St. Valentine's Day
    Une carte de Saint-Valentin = Valentine's Day card
    Bonne Saint-Valentin = Happy Valentine's Day
    Mon chéri = My dear (male)
    Ma chérie = My dear (female)
    Je t'aime = I love you
    Je t'aime de tout mon cœur = I love with all my heart
    Tu me manques = I miss you
    Mon cher = Dear.... (male) (starting a letter)
    Ma chère = Dear.... (female) (starting a letter)
    Avec toute mon affection = With all my affection
    Affectueusement = Fondly
    Je t'embrasse très fort = I embrace you strongly

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    An Gleann Inar Tógadh Mé freagra samplach

    (i) Rinne mé staidéar ar an dán “An Gleann Inar Tógadh Mé” le Dubhghlas de hÍde i rith mo chúrsa. Is é ábhar an dáin seo ná an Dúlra.

    (ii) Rugadh an file sa Gleann. Bhí sé an-sásta sa Ghleann nuair a bhí sé óg. Bhain sé taitneamh as na rudaí a rinne sé ansin, "Shiúil sé ó áit go háit". Bhí grá aige don dúlra. Luaigh sé an giorria agus an fia agus sruthán sléibhe. Thaitin an t-uisce fuair úr go mór leis, "San uisce fíor ba mhór mo dhúil". Bhí sé sásta sa Ghleann. Bhí grá aige don Ghleann. Ní raibh eagla air roimh aon rud sa Ghleann. Léim a bhád ar bharr na habhann. Cheap sé go raibh sé ábalta breith ar an ngaoth. Cheap sé go raibh dath an óir ar gach rud ina áit dhúchais sa Ghleann, "sa ghleann inar tógadh mé". Cheap sé go raibh sé ábalta aon rud a dhéanamh.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Litir: An t-Ospidéal

    3 Bóthar Buí
    Baile Dúill
    Baile Átha Cliath
    3 Iúil 2016

    A Eoin,

    Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte. Is fada an lá ó chuala mé uait. Go raibh maith agat as ucht do litir. Bhí sé ar intinn agam scríobh chugat. Ní raibh am agam scríobh go dtí seo. Bhí mé an-ghnóthach. Fan go gcloise tú mo scéal.

    Tá mé san ospidéal anois faraor. Bhí timpiste agam cúpla lá ó shin. Leag carr mé gan rabhadh. Bhris mé mo chos agus ghortaigh mé mo cheann. Tá mé i mbarda deas buíochas le Dia. Tá na hothair eile an-chairdiúil. Is maith liom an bia mar tá sé blásta. Bhí an pian i mo chos uafásach. Thug an banaltra instealladh dom don phian. Tógaim piollaí agus leigheas dhá uair in aghaidh an lae. Beidh orm siúl le maidí croise ar feadh seachtaine. Tá biseach ag teacht orm in aghaidh an lae. Tá atmaisféar deas cairdiúil sa bharda. Scrúdaigh an dochtúir mo chos agus dúirt sé go raibh sé briste. Tá mé ag tnúth le dul abhaile. Beidh mé ag filleadh ar scoil i gceann coicíse.

    Bhuel níl aon nuacht eile agam. Scríobh litir chugam go luath. Ná déan dearmad. Ná déan moill. Beidh mé ag tnúth le litir uait roimh i bhfad. Feicfidh mé tú roimh i bhfad. Tabhair aire duit féin. Slán go fóill.

    Is mise, do chara

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Litir: Dráma san Amharclann

    3 Bóthar Buí
    Baile Dúill
    Baile Átha Cliath
    3 Iúil 2016

    A Eoin,

    Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte. Is fada an lá ó chuala mé uait. Go raibh maith agat as ucht do litir. Bhí sé ar intinn agam scríobh chugat. Ní raibh am agam scríobh go dtí seo. Bhí mé an-ghnóthach. Fan go gcloise tú mo scéal.

    Is cuimhin liom an lá sin an-mhaith. Go raibh maith agat as ucht na ticéid a thug tú dom. Bhí na haisteoirí ar fheabhas. Bhí mé an bhuíocht díot. Tugadh soláistí saor dom. Bhí an áit dubh le daoine. Bhí atmaisféar hiontach ann. Bhain mé an-taitneamh as. Cheannaigh mé cuimhneachán. Bhí mé an-tuirseach i ndiadh. Thug sé a lán ama imeacht abhaile mar bhí slua ollmhór ann. Tugadh síob abhaile dom.

    Bhuel níl aon nuacht eile agam. Scríobh litir chugam go luath. Ná déan dearmad. Ná déan moill. Beidh mé ag tnúth le litir uait roimh i bhfad. Feicfidh mé tú roimh i bhfad. Tabhair aire duit féin. Slán go fóill.

    Is mise, do chara

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  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Litir: Teach agus Ceantar Nua

    3 Bóthar Buí
    Baile Dúill
    Baile Átha Cliath
    3 Iúil 2016

    A Eoin,

    Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte. Is fada an lá ó chuala mé uait. Go raibh maith agat as ucht do litir. Bhí sé ar intinn agam scríobh chugat. Ní raibh am agam scríobh go dtí seo. Bhí mé an-ghnóthach. Fan go cloise tú mo scéal.

    Bhog mé go gceantar nua. Tá mé i mo chónaí i dteach leathscoite i mbruachbhaile beag. Is suíomh álainn é. Tá na comharsana cairdiúil. Tá cúlgháirdín mór agam ach gan aon gháirdín tosaigh. Tá na bláthanna faoi bhláth. Tá mo mheánscoil nua go deas. Faoi láthair, tá mé ag déanamh an Teastas Shóisearaigh. Is maith liom Tíreolaíocht agus Matamaitic ach is fuath liom Reiligiúin agus go háirithe Eolaíocht. Ceapaim go bhfuil sé an-leadránach. Tá an príomhoide an-dian. Seinnim an giotár agus an pianó ar scoil.

    Bhuel níl aon nuacht eile agam. Scríobh litir chugam go luath. Ná déan dearmad. Ná déan moill. Beidh mé ag tnúth le litir uait roimh i bhfad. Feicfidh mé tú roimh i bhfad. Tabhair aire duit féin. Slán go fóill.

    Is mise, do chara

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Litir: An Ghaeltacht

    3 Bóthar Buí
    Baile Dúill
    Baile Átha Cliath
    3 Iúil 2016

    A Eoin,

    Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte. Is fada an lá ó chuala mé uait. Go raibh maith agat as ucht do litir. Bhí sé ar intinn agam scríobh chugat. Ní raibh am agam scríobh go dtí seo. Bhí mé an-ghnóthach. Fan go cloise tú mo scéal.

    Bíonn ranganna againn gach maidin. Bíonn cluichí againn gach tráthnóna. Bíonn ceilí againn gach oíche. Is breá liom an áit seo. Tá bean an tí an-flaithiúil agus cairdiúil. Tá a lán feabhas ag teacht ar mo chuid Gaeilge. Bíonn an craic go hiontach. Bíonn an cócaireacht go blásta. Tá a lán cairde nua agam anois. Ba bhreá liom teacht arais anseo an bhliain seo chugainn. Téimid ag snámh san fharraige fuar gach lá. Tá mé ag glacadh páirt i ndráma deag.

    Bhuel níl aon nuacht eile agam. Scríobh litir chugam go luath. Ná déan dearmad. Ná déan moill. Beidh mé ag tnúth le litir uait roimh i bhfad. Feicfidh mé tú roimh i bhfad. Tabhair aire duit féin. Slán go fóill.

    Is mise, do chara

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Useful Irish Phrases

    Is cuimhin liom an lá sin is a tharla sé inné ~ I remember that day like it was yesterday

    Tugadh _____ dom ~ I was given _____

    Creid nó ná creid ~ Believe it or not

    Tosach / Tús maith leath na hoibre ~ A good start is half the battle

    Ná habair é ~ Don’t mention it

    A cuirtear os ar comhair amach ~ Put in front of us

    Is léir mar sin ~ It is clear

    Bhí mé ar barr an domhain ~ I was on top of the world

    Ó bhun go barr ~ From top to bottom

    Dubh le daoine ~ Packed with people

    Bhí an turas fhada agus tuirsiúil ~ The journey was long and tiring

    Ní raibh mé ábalta aon rud a dhéanamh ~ I wasn’t able to do anything

    Gan féachaint ar dheis nó ar chlé ~ Without looking right or left

    Ar mo bhealach ~ On my way

    Saor ó locht ~ Free from blame

    Bhí / Tá an ghrian ag scoilteadh na gcloch ~ The sun was / is splitting the stones

    Tá a lán cairde nua agam anois ~ I have a lot of new friends now

    Tá súil agam go bhfeicfidh mé tú an bhliain seo chugainn ~ I hope that I will see you next year

    Mothaím tú uaim ~ I miss you

    Ní hé lá na báistí lá na bpáistí ~ A rainy day is not a day for children

  • Registered Users Posts: 3 cath2012

    Thanks for these. . Hate writing business notes. . Do you have any other chapters pretty please. .

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    cath2012 wrote: »
    Thanks for these. . Hate writing business notes. . Do you have any other chapters pretty please. .

    Yep.. any specific chapters you would like?

  • Registered Users Posts: 3 cath2012

    Thanks a mill... Anything on people at work, the employer and Industrial relations

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    People At Work

    Work - is when a person does something productive. You work when you do homework, study or help at home. Therefore, you get nothing in return as in payment.
    Employment - is when a person gets paid to work. If you have a job in a shop, you are employed.
    Unemployment - if a person is looking for employment but cannot find a job, they are said to be unemployed. To be counted as unemployed, you must be between the ages of 16 and 66, available for work and not in full-time education. A person must be looking for work to be counted as unemployed.
    The Labour Force - consists of everybody who is available to work. This includes the employed, unemployed and self-employed.

    Types of employees
    Unskilled - work which does not require any special training. It often involves physical labour and the rate of pay tends to be low, e.g. bin collector.
    Semi-skilled - work which requires some training. Most semi-skilled workers are trained to use one machine or do one job, e.g. a person trained to use a sewing machine.
    Skilled - work which requires specialist training to do a particular job. E.g. carpenters and hairdressers are skilled.
    Professional - workers that have a professional qualification(s), usually from a university. They need this particular qualification to do particular work. E.g. teachers, solicitors and doctors are professional.

    Natures of work
    Manual - involves physical work, e.g. gardening.
    Clerical - involves typing, filing etc, e.g. receptionist.
    Creative - requires imagination, e.g. writer.
    Administrative - involves supervising or managing the work of others, e.g. manager.

    The employee's rights and responsibilities

    • Fair day's pay
    • To be treated equally to other employees
    • Fair number of paid holidays per year
    • To join a union
    • To work in a healthy, safe environment

    • Good punctuation (be on time)
    • Obey all rules and regulations
    • Not to give away company secrets
    • Co-operate with other workers
    • To look after your employer's property

    Rewards & risks of self-employment

    • You are your own boss
    • You make all the decisions
    • You keep all the profits
    • Your own suitable working times
    • Decide what product or service to sell

    • Unlimited liability - If the business fails, you risked losing everything
    • May have to work long hours
    • Have to provide the capital to set up and run the business
    • You make all the decisions

    Organisational Structure

    Typical organisational chart (comes up nearly every year)


    Board of directors

    Managing director

    Department managers (e.g. of departments: Sales department, finance department, production department)


    Staff workers

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    The Employer

    Rights & responsibilities of the employer

    • To hire suitable staff
    • To expect employees to be loyal to the business
    • To decide the objectives of the business
    • To fire staff if there is a legitimate reason (e.g. stealing)

    • Equal pay for equal work
    • To give employees contracts
    • To allow staff their annual paid holidays
    • To keep appropriate records for tax purposes
    • To maintain a safe and healthy workplace
    • To ensure there is no discrimination in the workplace

    Steps involved in hiring staff
    1. Job description - what needs to be done?
    2. Advertise - where?
    3. Letter of application - a CV, an application form from candidates
    4. Short listing - pick the best candidates
    5. Interview the candidates
    6. Selection - Select the most suitable candidate
    7. Candidate is notified
    8. Contract - terms and conditions of work, e.g. hours, pay etc
    9. Training - of the new employee
    10. Employer and employee inform local tax offices - arrangements are made to make the correct PAYE and PRSI deductions
    11. Probationary period - before being permanently employed

    How to make a job advertisement
    1. Name the employer
    2. Position to be filled
    3. Qualifications and experience of the candidate
    4. Personality of the candidate
    5. How to apply
    6. Closing date
    7. State that the company is an equal opportunities employer
    8. Plan where to advertise the advert

    Calculating rates of pay
    Time rate - You are paid a rate per hour for a normal working week. Extra work is paid with overtime, usually at a higher rate.
    Piece rate - You are paid for each item produced.
    Commission - You get paid a certain % of the value of goods that you sell. A bonus may be paid as well if certain targets are met.
    Salary - You get paid a fixed sum per month to do a job.
    Flexitime - Employees are free to choose their own working hours.
    Subsidised - An employers pays some of the cost of something so the employees get cheaper food.

    Income tax forms
    P60 - Given to the employee by the employer at the end of the year. It shows the total pay, PAYE (pay as you earn) and PRSI (pay related social insurance) for the year.
    P45 Cessation Certificate - Given to an employee when he/she leaves a firm.
    Payslip - Given to the employee by the employer at the end of the week which shows their gross pay, all the deductions and their net pay. Sometimes a payslip is known as a wage slip.
    Wages book - Employers need to record their wages and salaries paid. This is done in the wages book. The total cost of wages and employer's PRSI is calculated. The information for the payslip is extracted from the wages book.

    Payment of wages and salaries
    Wages and salaries can be paid by cash, by cheque or by credit transfer. Cash payment is unusual nowadays.

    Coin/Note analysis
    If wages are paid in cash, the employer needs to do a coin/note analysis. This gives a breakdown of how many of each coin/note will be required.

  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Industrial Relations
    • Industrial relations - refers to the relationship that exists between employers and employees in the workplace.
    • Good industrial relations lead to:
    • Higher productivity
    • A happier workforce
    • A more motivated workforce
    • Increasing sales
    • Bad industrial relations lead to:
    • Strikes
    • Unhealthy working conditions
    • Decreasing sales

    Trade Unions
    • A trade union is a group of workers who come together to protect their interests.
    • Everyone can join a trade union except the army and the Garda.

    Functions of a Trade Union
    • Get better pay and working conditions.
    • Collect subscriptions.
    • Represent workers in talks with the employers.
    • Training and education courses.
    • Give advice.

    Types of Trade Unions
    • Craft unions: Oldest trade unions. Do an apprenticeship in this industry, e.g. Irish Masters Butchers.
    • Industrial unions: All unions and workers work in the same industry, e.g. Banks.
    • General union: Different types of unions, e.g. SIPTU - Service Industrial Professional Technical Union.
    • White collar union: Professional workers, e.g. Teachers - ASTI.

    Shop Steward
    • A shop steward is the union representative in the workplace.
    • He/she is elected by his/her co-workers.
    • Collects subscriptions.
    • Recruits new members.
    • Solves problems before a dispute arises.
    • Negotiates agreements.

    • Irish Congress of Trade Union.
    • Governing body of trade unions in Ireland.
    • It provides once voice for trade unions.
    • Represents trade unions in talks with the government.
    • Gives advice and training to members.

    • Irish Business Employers Confederation.
    • Represents employers in talks with the government.
    • Gives its members advice on industrial relations problems.

    Industrial Disputes
    • An industrial dispute is where a disagreement occurs between management and unions in the workplace. E.g. ASTI in dispute with government over the new Junior Cert.
    • The main causes of industrial disputes include:
    • Rates of pay.
    • Conditions of work.
    • Dismissal / suspension of an employee.
    • Management not recognising a trade union.
    • Unfair treatment of a worker.

    Third party organisations that help solve a dispute

    1. The Labour Relations Commission (LRC)
    • It was set up to help solve disputes.
    • It provides trained people who will bring an employee and employer together to try solve the dispute.
    • An agreement is called conciliation.

    2. The Labour Court
    • There are three people on the Labour Court Committee who listen to both sides and make a decision about what they think should happen.
    • This time, you must accept the decision and this is process is known as arbitration.

    3. Equality Officer
    • The equality officer listens to both sides and makes a decision.
    • E.g. A more senior person has been passed over for promotion.

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  • Registered Users Posts: 13,544 ✭✭✭✭sryanbruen

    Sample answer for the poem 'An Gleann inar Tógadh Mé' for the section Filíocht

    (i) Rinne mé staidéar ar an dán “An Gleann Inar Tógadh Mé” le Dubhghlas de hÍde i rith mo chúrsa. Is é ábhar an dáin seo ná an Dúlra.

    (ii) Rugadh an file sa Gleann. Bhí sé an-sásta sa Ghleann nuair a bhí sé óg. Bhain sé taitneamh as na rudaí a rinne sé ansin, "Shiúil sé ó áit go háit". Bhí grá aige don dúlra. Luaigh sé an giorria agus an fia agus sruthán sléibhe. Thaitin an t-uisce fuair úr go mór leis, "San uisce fíor ba mhór mo dhúil". Bhí sé sásta sa Ghleann. Bhí grá aige don Ghleann. Ní raibh eagla air roimh aon rud sa Ghleann. Léim a bhád ar bharr na habhann. Cheap sé go raibh sé ábalta breith ar an ngaoth. Cheap sé go raibh dath an óir ar gach rud ina áit dhúchais sa Ghleann, "sa ghleann inar tógadh mé". Cheap sé go raibh sé ábalta aon rud a dhéanamh.