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  • Registered Users Posts: 351 ✭✭CathalRyano

    joeballs wrote: »
    hi lads, im really stuck for tech graph my teacher is useless and has only done two ordinary questions with us !!! I have my mock tomorrow , any chance of a little help for the higher level paper?

    What kind of help do you need for tech graph? Not really many notes or anything like that for tech graph, is it the paper you're asking for, because that's not allowed here. Even then, with the tech graph paper you'll need to know how to do the drawings rather than simply know what's coming up. The same things come up in every drawing every year, it's just a different drawing.

    If you need any help, I can offer it here, I got 95% in my tech graph exam, mainly because of how brilliant our teacher is!

  • Registered Users Posts: 8 joeballs

    What kind of help do you need for tech graph? Not really many notes or anything like that for tech graph, is it the paper you're asking for, because that's not allowed here. Even then, with the tech graph paper you'll need to know how to do the drawings rather than simply know what's coming up. The same things come up in every drawing every year, it's just a different drawing.

    If you need any help, I can offer it here, I got 95% in my tech graph exam, mainly because of how brilliant our teacher is!

    i understand what is coming up in the paper it is just that i amn't great at drawing parables, tangets and rotations etc. i am okay with most part A's of each question as they simple and straight forward. It is when you are asked to find the true shape of surface s and bits like that. My major problems are with rotations, ellipses parables and tangents... Any help in that area would be great

  • Registered Users Posts: 351 ✭✭CathalRyano

    joeballs wrote: »
    i understand what is coming up in the paper it is just that i amn't great at drawing parables, tangets and rotations etc. i am okay with most part A's of each question as they simple and straight forward. It is when you are asked to find the true shape of surface s and bits like that. My major problems are with rotations, ellipses parables and tangents... Any help in that area would be great

    Look through your book and where it tells you to do the constuctions. You'll need to know how to draw a parabola (they're quite simple to be honest), an elipse when only given the major axis (or only the minor axis), a tangent to an elipse from an external point. Try just doing some rough drawings of each of them on bits of paper with the book telling you how.

    Rotations shouldn't be too hard. The elevation is given to you and It's really just a matter of sending your points down, rotating them shouldn't be too hard, remember to look at the method in your book and make sure you know how to rotate them, bring them up to the end elevation. Bring the points across from the elevation to the end elevation. Make sure to divide up your circles into 12 with your 60 degree set square.

    Also remember that if you can't do a part of the drawing, just guess it as a lot of bits aren't really worth that many marks as long as you know the method of drawing the drawing. for example, if there's an angle you can't find in the elevation of a rotations question, guess it and just complete the rotation.

    Not sure if this is much help, good luck.

  • Registered Users Posts: 8 joeballs

    if any one needs any history notes just ask, i have them on everything in year three and year two. I have my french mock tomorrow and i would appreciate it if anybody could tell me what phrases come up regulary in the french informal letter and how to get good marks in it ? Thanks :)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 1,386 ✭✭✭Troxck

    Does anyone have a basic intro for a debate in Irish? In TY now and we never did a debate for the Junior Cert so I have no idea how I would start it. I'm fine with the actual main structure, just the intro...

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  • Registered Users Posts: 3,232 ✭✭✭Bazinga_N

    Troxck wrote: »
    Does anyone have a basic intro for a debate in Irish? In TY now and we never did a debate for the Junior Cert so I have no idea how I would start it. I'm fine with the actual main structure, just the intro...
    Open it with:
    A chathaoirligh, a mholtór(í), a lucht fhreasúra agus a chomhscoláirí.. = Chariperson, adjudicator(s), opposition and fellow students..

    Then you'd want to announce the motion, with something like:

    Is é an rún atá le plé againn inniu ná.. = The motion that is to be discussed by us today is..

    Then just go into it :)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 1,386 ✭✭✭Troxck

    Bazinga_N wrote: »
    Open it with:
    A chathaoirligh, a mholtór(í), a lucht fhreasúra agus a chomhscoláirí.. = Chariperson, adjudicator(s), opposition and fellow students..

    Then you'd want to announce the motion, with something like:

    Is é an rún atá le plé againn inniu ná.. = The motion that is to be discussed by us today is..

    Then just go into it :)

    Thank you SO much. I knew it was in my book from last year but I cannot find it. Again, thanks!

  • Registered Users Posts: 122 ✭✭AlmostCared

    I'll be finished me pre exams this Thursday and will have a long weekend ahead of me. I'd be more than happy to put some of my notes up if anybody wants them? Just ask me and I'll see if I have something lying around on it. Also, there seems to be very few people here in this thread compared to last year?

  • Registered Users Posts: 8 joeballs

    hope this helps someone :)

    YEAR 3



    Governing Ireland
    • Irish MPs and lords in Westminster
    • Lord Lieutenant represented King
    • Chief Secretary represented British government

    Vast majority supported Irish Parliamentary Party (Home Rule Party).
    Led by John Redmond
    84 of 105 seats in 1910
    Home Rule meant a parliament in Dublin to deal with internal affairs
    Peaceful means.
    Had support of the Liberal Party.

    Secret revolutionary organisation
    Responsible for 1867 Fenian Rising
    Complete independent Republic
    Supported by Irish in USA

    Sinn Féin
    Arthur Griffith 1905
    Dual monarchy
    Tariffs to develop industry
    Small until after 1916

    Wanted to stay in UK. No HR. 3 reasons
    1. Felt British
    2. Home rule = Rome rule
    3. Fear of losing trade links
    Carson and Craig
    Supported by Conservatives (Empire would fall apart)

    Labour Movement
    Poor state of workers in Ireland
    James Larkin from Liverpool set up ITGWU
    William Martin Murphy and Employers Federation = Lockout
    Police, government and Catholic Church supported employers.
    After 5 months workers defeated
    ITGWU did not die


    The Home Rule Bill
    1910 the Liberal government needed the support of the Home Rule Party (84 seats)
    1911 Liberals passed The Parliament Act. House of Lords could only delay bills for 2 years.
    1912 Third Home Rule Bill became law.
    1914 WW1 broke out.
    1916 the Irish didn’t want HR

    Unionist Opposition
    Took different forms
    • Demonstrations and speeches by Carson and Craig
    • Solemn League and Covenant
    • UVF
    • Larne (35000 rifles)
    The Curragh Mutiny

    Nationalist Reaction
    Eoin MacNeill wrote ‘The North Began’
    IRB involvement
    Howth gun running (900 rifles) Asgard
    WW1 stopped Civil War


    Unionists joined 36th Ulster Division to show support for the union
    Redmond at Woodenbridge split IVF
    Those who supported Redmond became the National Volunteers and joined the British army
    Those who supported MacNeill kept IVF name (IRB mainly)
    250,000 Irishmen fought in WW1. 30,000 to 40,000 died

    4. THE 1916 RISING

    Plans for a Rising
    IRB ‘England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity’
    Military Council (Thomas Clarke, Patrick Pearse, Sean McDermott, Thomas Mac Donough, Joseph Plunkett and Eamon Ceannt)
    James Connolly and the Irish Citizen’s Army persuaded to join.
    Roger Casement. 20,000 rifles from Germany on the Aud.
    MacNeill would not take part unless they were attacked first. The Castle document was forged. MacNeill was deceived and agreed to allow the IVF take part at Easter

    Plans go wrong
    Aud captured and scuttled. Casement arrested and hanged.
    MacNeill found out the Castle Document was a forgery and called off manoeuvres on Easter Sunday

    The Rising goes ahead
    Military Council decided to go ahead on Easter Monday.
    Rising confined to Dublin and bound for military failure
    Pearse and the Proclamation
    1500 rebels took key buildings in the city (GPO, Boland’s Mills, Jacob’s Factory, The Four Courts)
    Failure to take Dublin Castle a big mistake.
    British reinforcements from the Curragh and England.
    The Helga shelled the GPO
    Saturday, unconditional surrender

    The Results of the Rising
    1. 500 killed, more injured, much damage
    2. Dubliners angry with rebels
    3. Martial law (2000 interned)
    4. 90 sentenced to death. 15 executed in Kilmainham Jail. Irish minds were changed. Home Rule finished.
    5. Sinn Féin got blamed and became popular. It changed its aim to an Irish Republic. DeValera became its leader.

    The Conscription Crisis
    Compulsory military service further boosted Sinn Fein’s popularity

    The 1918 General Election
    73 seats for Sinn Fein
    Called their MPs Teachtaí Dála and refused to take seats.
    1919 Dáil Éireann set up.


    Sinn Féin and the First Dail
    1919 Mansion House
    27 TDs only, jail or on the run
    First meeting issued:
    • Declaration of Independence
    • A message to the Free Nations of the World
    • A programme to improve living and working conditions
    At a later meeting DeValera (rescued) elected president
    Collins was Minister for Finance; Markieviec (labour), Griffith (home affairs and vice-president)
    The Dail:
    • Got control of Local gov.
    • Set up their own courts
    • Got loans

    The War of Independence
    Same day of First Dail, Soloheadbeg happened (Breen, Treacy and others). 2 RIC dead, gelignite.
    Early stages, RIC main target of guerrilla campaign.
    Collins: Director of Intelligence. The Squad. £10,000 reward on his head.
    Flying Columns (Tom Barry, Liam Lynch, Ernie O Malley) victories at Kilmichael and Crossbarry.

    The British Response
    Black and tans
    Could not cope with guerrilla warfare and carried out reprisals (Cork, Balbriggan, burnings, beatings and murder)
    The Government of Ireland Act 1920 offered Home Rule to North and South. Ulster Unionists accepted and Northern Ireland state was formed.

    Major incidents of the War of Independence
    • Tomás MacCurtain,s murder
    • Terence MacSwiney’s 74 day hunger strike
    • Bloody Sunday 21st of Nov 1920. 11 agents killed. 12 in Croke park (Michael Hogan).
    • Burning of Customs House (80 of Dublin brigade gone)

    People wanted peace. IRA out of ammo and short of men.
    Bad publicity for British gov. Costing a lot of money
    DeValera and Lloyd George agreed a ceasefire.

    Treaty Negotiations
    DeV refused to go (Knew a Republic not on offer?)
    SF delegation: Collins and Griffith were main Irish negotiators
    British reps: Lloyd George (P.M), Churchill, Birkenhead and Chamberlain were experienced
    Talks held in London
    Irish delegates had to report back to Cabinet
    Irish wanted Unity British insisted on loyalty to Crown and Empire
    L.G. gave them an ultimatum: sign or face renewal of war

    Terms of Treaty
    Created a 26 county Irish Free State
    Governor General=King’s rep in Ireland
    TD’s had to take oath of allegiance to King
    British retained 3 Treaty ports for naval use (Cobh, Lough Swilly, Berehaven)
    Ireland was a dominion of British Commonwealth = status as Canada
    Boundary Commision to look at border between IFS and N. Ireland (Collins and Griffith told by LG that this would make N. Ireland unfeasible as a separate entity)

    Treaty Debates
    Pro-Treaty: Collins Griffith Cosgrave: ‘The freedom to achieve freedom’, best deal that could be got.
    Anti-Treaty: DeV, Stack, Brugha, Markievicz: Betrayal of Republican martyrs, couldn’t accept Oath to King.
    Vote: Pro-Treaty 64 Anti-Treaty 57. DeV and his followers walk out: ‘The majority have no right to do wrong’.


    Pro-Treaty (Regulars or Free State Army) V Anti Treaty (Irregulars or Republicans)
    Both sides grabbed barracks as the British left
    Irregulars took 4 Courts
    Collins won election well. When 4 Courts Irregulars took a Regular general, Collins attacked them. He won easily with British artillery.

    The Munster Republic
    Limerick to Waterford
    Collins used ships

    Death of Collins and Griffith
    August 1922
    Griffith had brain haemorrhage
    Beal na mBlath
    WT Cosgrave and Kevin O Higgins took over

    Guerilla Warfare
    Did not work well because:
    • Free State had support of most people
    • They knew the land as well
    Great brutality on both sides
    April 1923 Liam Lynch killed. Frank Aiken and DeV called a ceasefire

    • Death and destruction
    • Lost leaders
    • Bitterness
    • Political Parties


    • Establish law and order
    • Rebuild the economy
    • Manage relations with Britain (Anglo-Irish relations)
    After the Treaty
    • Irish Free State is made up of 26 counties
    • Irish Free State is a member (dominion) of the British Commonwealth
    • Oireachtas, Dail, Seanad are established
    • Oath of Allegiance to King by TDs
    • Governor General represents King in Ireland
    • British control 3 Treaty ports- Cobh, Lough Swilly, and Berehaven. Important for British security.

    Law and Order

    • Garda (unarmed) set up
    • Courts system is established (District Court, Circuit Court, High Court, Supreme Court)
    • Public Safety Act (gives Government wide powers of arrest)
    • The Army Mutiny (Old IRA members of army dissatisfied with redundancy and progress to republic). Richard Mulcahy (defence minister) resigned and leaders arrested. Important to control army. O’Higgins sorted it.

    The Economy
    • Concentration on agriculture (loans to farmers (ACC), better breeding)
    • The Shannon Scheme (ESB)
    • Sugar industry

    Relations with Britain

    • The Boundary Commission 1925- no change. Cosgrave signed off on partition. Republican elements unhappy-not using Treaty as a ‘Stepping Stone’.
    • IFS joined League of Nations in 1923. British unhappy with this.
    • IFS sent diplomats to other countries. British unhappy…they said there was already a Commonwealth representative there.
    • 1931 Statute of Westminster (allowed members to change any laws made for them by the British parliament). DeV uses this to good effect.

    Reasons for Decline of Cumann na nGaedhael
    • Blamed for the failure of the Boundary Commission
    • Great Depression caused by Wall St Crash of 1929
    • Cut in pay for teachers and garda-unpopular
    • Popularity of Fianna Fail- provided good opposition
    • People were tired of same faces; they wanted a change after 10 years of CnaG.


    Dismantling the Treaty
    • Used the Statute of Westminster to abolish the Oath
    • Got rid of the Governor General (ignored him, boycotted events he was at)
    • Removed the king as head of state (during abdication crisis)
    • 1937 New Constitution (no mention of King)

    The New Constitution (Bunreacht na hEireann)
    • The name ‘Taoiseach’ replaced old title of ‘President of Executive Council’
    • Douglas Hyde became 1st President
    • Articles 2 and 3-said constitution was for 32 counties.
    • Special position of Catholic Church recognised
    • New name: Eire not Free State

    The IRA and the Blueshirts
    On taking power DeV released the IRA prisoners who disrupted C na G meetings. He outlawed IRA in 1936 after a number of murders and bank raids.
    ACA elected Eoin O Duffy as leader. Blueshirts. Adopted Fascist characteristics (salute, uniform). DeV banned them after planned march on Glasnevin.
    Joined with C na G to form Fine Gael. O Duffy was first leader. Unpopular so went to Spanish Civil War.

    The Economic War
    DeV refused to pay the Land Annuities.
    British put tariffs on Irish cattle (20%). Irish put tariffs on British goods (5%). Ireland hardest hit.
    Anglo- Irish agreement 1938:
    • £10 million compensation paid to Britain to end land annuities
    • Free Trade
    • 3 Treaty ports returned (Cobh, Lough Swilly, Berehaven)

    The Economy
    Sean Lemass (Industry and Commerce) put Protectionism in place. Helped infant industry but poor quality goods at high prices.
    Irish Sugar and Aer Lingus set up.

    The Emergency
    Neutral because:
    • to show independence
    • too weak

    Emergency Powers Act:
    • Censorship
    • Army built up. LDF 250,000 men.

    The IRA a danger to neutrality. Some executed, some died on hunger strike and some interned.
    German spies. ‘Operation Green’
    North Strand 34 dead.
    Britain and US did not like our neutrality. Dev rejected their criticisms.

    What Lemass (Minister for Supplies) did:
    • Irish Shipping
    • Rationing
    • Turf replaced coal
    • The glimmer man

    9. 1948 – 1959

    Defeat for DeValera because:
    • People wanted a change
    • Unemployment and emigration

    1948 to 1951 The First Inter-Party government.
    Fine Gael, Labour and Clan na Poblachta.
    Taoiseach was John A Costello. Sean MacBride (external affairs), Noel Browne (Health).
    • 1949 Republic
    • Marshall Aid built houses and hospitals
    • Rural electricification
    • Fight against TB
    • IDA set up to attract foreign industry to Ireland
    • The Mother and Child scheme

    1951- 1954 DeValera in power.
    Better social welfare but still high unemployment and emigration

    1954 – 1957 The Second Inter-Party government
    • Joined UN
    • Took action against IRA for border attacks (Clan na Poblachta pulled out of the government as a result)

    DeV again interned IRA
    1959 Dev became President for the next 14 years
    Lemass took over as Taoiseach

    9. SEAN LEMASS AND THE 1960s

    Lemass appointed younger ministers like Lynch, Haughey and Donough O Malley

    TK Whittaker drew up the First Programme for Economic Expansion, which:
    • Got rid of Protectionism.
    • Encouraged exports.
    • Grants and tax concessions to attract foreign industry

    Lemass met Terence O Neill.
    New schools were built.
    Free Secondary education introduced
    First shopping centres built
    Finglas, Ballymun, Ballyfermot etc.were built.
    RTE set up
    ‘Swinging Sixties’
    JFK arrived.

    10. YEARS OF UNCERTAINTY 1966 –1985.

    Jack Lynch as Taoiseach 1966 – 1973
    1970 The Arms crisis. Blaney and Haughey and Blaney sacked. Boland resigned in sympathy. Haughey later acquitted.
    The campaign to join the EEC. We signed up on the 1st January 1973.

    The Coalition government 1973 – 1977
    Fine Gael and Labour led by Liam Cosgrave.
    Oil crisis led to inflation and unemployment. Taxes increased.
    Sunningdale signed by Heath and Cosgrave but the new power-sharing agreement was broken by Unionist opposition
    1974 Dublin and Monaghan bombings.

    1977 – 1981 Fianna Fail returns
    ‘Give-away election’
    1979 Lynch resigned and Haughey took over.

    1981 Coalition under Garret Fitzgerald (FG and Lab)
    1982 Haughey and FF in power for 10 months

    1982 –1987 FG under Fitzgerald
    Still inflation, debt, high taxes, emigration and unemployment.
    Fitzgerald and Thatcher signed the Anglo-Irish agreement in 1985. It stated that the Republic would have a say in running Northern Ireland..

  • Registered Users Posts: 1 donaldmz

    i was wondering if someone could give me the people in history essay names please
    -thank you

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  • Registered Users Posts: 300 ✭✭positivealf

    If anyone wants all the History notes for JC 2013 I have them all on a neatly organised PDF file from, send me a private message or something with ur email and i can send them to you ;)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 286 ✭✭cfc.forever

    CSPE Notes 2013 I've decided to put up CSPE notes on request

    Michael Noonan Minister for Finance
    Eamon Gilmore - Tanaiste &Minister for Foreign
    Ruairi Quinn - Minister for Education and Skills
    Brendan Howlin Minister for Public Expenditiure and
    Richard Bruton - Jobs Enterprize and Innovation
    Joan Burton - Minister for social protection
    Jimmy Dennihan - Arts Heritage &Gaeltacht
    Pat Rabbitte - Communications Energy
    and Natural Resources
    Phil Hogan - Envoirment Community and
    Local Government
    Alan Shatter - Minister Justice Equality and defence
    Simon Coveney - Agriculture, food and marine
    James Reily - Health
    Leo Varadlar - Transport tourism and sport
    Frances Fitzgerald - Children and Youth affairs

    There are 43 constituencies in the republic of Ireland.
    There are 27 members of the EU currently.
    The European Parliament meet in Strasbourg and Brussels
    Ireland currently holds the presidency for the EU
    What might come up is about Cyprus banking crisis
    There was a children referendum this year because the government wanted the consitution changed and people voted yes for it.
    The United Kingdom are thinking about opting out of the EU.
    Scotland may becoming independent in 2014 as they will have a vote.
    The Northern Ireland Parliament meet in Stormount.
    The current parties in power are Fine Gael in a coalition with Labour
    The current president of Ireland is Michael D Higgins.
    The Attorney general has the highest authority in law in Ireland.

    Yeah theres a few notes, I would take mind of. Alot of CSPE is using your common sense though, I hope this is beneficial to you :)

  • Moderators, Category Moderators, Education Moderators Posts: 27,202 CMod ✭✭✭✭spurious

    CSPE Notes 2013 I've decided to put up CSPE notes on request

    What might come up is about Cyprus banking crisis

    The papers were set a long time before the Cypriot crisis happened.

  • Registered Users Posts: 1 cmd15

    hey can someone get me revision noted for the merchant of Venice for the JC

  • Banned (with Prison Access) Posts: 759 ✭✭✭Man City 10

    Bazinga_N wrote: »
    Why Varnish?
    • Water-resistant
    • Scratch-resistant
    • Easily-cleaned
    • Clear finish enhances the grain of the wood
    • Resists heat
    • Stains/coloured varnish are available

    1. Apply the varnish with a brush/cloth, working with the grain
    2. Cover all surfaces evenly, with no drips/run
    3. When the first coat is applied, allow to dry
    4. Sand lightly between coasts (denib) with very fine sandpaper or fine wire wool
    5. Apply another coat of varnish evenly and leave to dry again
    6. Repeat the process until you have three coats applied.

    Do you have any more notes on woodwork

  • Registered Users Posts: 176 ✭✭pa limerick

    Does anyone have notes on dulce et decorum

  • Registered Users Posts: 192 ✭✭chocolate98

    i love everyone for putting these notes up
    thank u sooooooooo much!!!!!!!!!xox

  • Registered Users Posts: 18 sarahmg908

    anyone have any Home Ec. notes though???!!

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 245 ✭✭Pwee2029

    I apologise if giving this link is wrong but I don't see any reasons not to. These are maths notes, honours level. I've used them for my pres and they were useful. There are spider diagrams as well as solutions to sample questions given. They show you each step on how to get the answer.

  • Registered Users Posts: 195 ✭✭onlinenerd

    Can anyone post any sample A standard english HL sample answers?


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  • Registered Users Posts: 792 ✭✭✭Cr4pSnip3r

    My sample answer for a people in history question,

    Ancient Rome

    I am a Roman general living in Ancient Rome. The Roman Empire stretches from as far as Hadrian's wall to Jerusalem. I control many legions (5,000 soldiers) who are divided into centuries (100 men). The city of Rome has about 1 million people. The most important buildings are found in the forum. There are courts, temples and large government buildings. I live in a private villa. It has an atrium, with a pool and peristylium. It has many statues of Gods. Mars is very important to me as a general, he is the God of war. Most of the rooms have mosaic floors and murals on the walls. Nearby are the insulae where the lower-class, the plebs live. The insulae are made of wood and are usually between 4 to 6 floors tall. Fires are common.

    As the man, I am head of the family while my wife runs the household and directs the slaves. I wear a tunic with a toga when I go to the senate, my wife wears a stola. My sons are preparing to go to school to be in the army or politics. My daughter is learning to run a household for her planned marriage.

    I like to go to the public baths to wash. I also enjoy the Circus maximus for chariot races and to the Colosseum for Gladiator fights.

    NB: It's not a lot, but I've tried to cram pack facts into it, which is the main thing. I based it off info from a revision book I have, although it's quite similar to their example xD It should be fine.

  • Banned (with Prison Access) Posts: 88 ✭✭Dodo Bird

    Anyone have notes on Italian or German
    Any Samples letters

  • Registered Users Posts: 20 TtomRedCM

    Last 8 years for people in historys
    Question 4- People In History
    Renaissance Painter OUTSIDE Italy - Pieter Bruegel
    Planter who received land
    Revolutionary leader - George Washington (American Revolution)
    A factory/mine owner
    Political leader in 1960-1985 - Sean Lemass
    Person living in a named ancient civilisation OUTSIDE Ireland. - Pleb or Patrician
    Monk in Celtic Ireland
    Religious Reformer - Martin Luther

    Leader on a voyage of Exploration - Christopher Columbus
    Irish landowner who lost land in a named plantation
    Leader in the struggle for Irish independence, 1900-1921. - Michael Collins
    Lord or Lady of a medieval castle.
    Planter who received land
    Revolutionary Leader - George Washington (American Revolution)
    Farm labourer during the Agricultural Revolution.
    Named leader during Cold War Crisis - John F Kennedy (Cuban Missile Crisis)
    Person living in a named ancient civilisation OUTSIDE Ireland. - Pleb or Patrician
    Monk in Celtic Ireland
    Renaissance Painter OUTSIDE Italy - Pieter Bruegel

    Leader on a voyage of Exploration - Christopher Columbus
    A factory/mine owner
    Person living in Southern/Northern Ireland during Emergency, 1939-45.

    Person living in ancient (pre-Christian) Ireland.
    Lord or lady of a medieval castle.
    Religious Reformer - Martin Luther
    Planter who received land
    German soldier in Operation Barbarossa (June 1941) or British or American soldier who took part in D-Day (June 1944).
    Political leader in 1960-1985 - Sean Lemass
    Monk in Celtic Ireland
    Serf on medieval manor.
    Renaissance Artist - Leonardo da Vinci
    Mine/Factory worker
    Leader in the struggle for Irish independence, 1900-1923 - Michael Collins
    Person living in a named ancient civilisation OUTSIDE Ireland. - Pleb or Patrician
    Sailor on voyage of exploration
    Planter who received land
    Revolutionary Leader - George Washington (American Revolution)
    Farm labourer during the Agricultural Revolution.
    Named leader during Cold War Crisis - John F Kennedy (Cuban Missile Crisis)
    A person in ancient Ireland.
    A monk in an early Irish monastery.
    A knight living in a medieval castle.
    Revolutionary Leader - George Washington (American Revolution)
    Factory/mine owner
    Leader in the struggle for Irish independence, 1900-1923 - Michael Collins or 
Person living in Northern Ireland during Emergency

    Person living in a named ancient civilisation OUTSIDE Ireland. - Pleb or Patrician
    Renaissance artist - Leonardo da Vinci
    Planter who received land
    Old person describing changes that have occurred in communications in Ireland since 1945
    News reporter describing a major event during the Cold War, 1945-1963.

  • Registered Users Posts: 20 TtomRedCM

    Martin Luther- A Reformer
    Born in Saxony, Germany 1483.
    Teacher at University of Wittenburg for Theology
    Studied bible - way for sinners to get into Heaven
    Answer was ‘Justification by faith alone’
    Against sale of Indulgences, wrote list of arguments- 95 Theses, nailed to Wittenburg Church door.
    Printing Press- made pamphlets highlighting Arguments- distributed easily
    He was called a Herotic for going against teachings of the Church
    Duke of Saxony- called for Pope to send someone to argue Luther Beliefs- caused Luther to grow further apart
    In 1519- Claimed ‘The Authority of the Bible was greater than that of the Pope’
    Pope threatened to excommunicate- Issued Papal Bull (Exurge Domini) warned to back down
    Luther reacts by burning in Public- Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther
    Charles V calls a Diet (Meeting) in Worms - Luther told to recant but refuses
    Declared an Outlaw by the Order of Worms
    Brought to the Castle of Wartburg by Frederick the Wise
    Luther spends year in Wartburg- Translates Bible into German
    Luther marries Katherina von Bora- Has 6 Children
    Dies in 1546 in Saxony

    Christopher Columbus- An Explorer
    Born in Genoa, Italy 1451.
    Dreamed being Sailor in Youth- Influenced by Travels of Marco Polo to China
    Convinced World was round- decided would travel West to reach China
    Looked for sponsorship- Got support from Queen Isabella -Spain
    3 Ships set sail from Port Palos, Spain in August 1492
    Columbus on flagship - Santa Maria, other 2 were Nina & Pinta.
    First stop in Canary Islands for food and repairs
    September 1492, 3 ships sailed west in Atlantic.
    October 1492, 3 ships reached land, named it San Salvador - Called Natives ‘Indians’
    Santa Maria sank- timber used to build fort on island called Hispaniola
    March 1493, Columbus returns to Spain to Hero’s Welcome.
    Columbus made 3 more voyages to New World, ended career in shame, for treating natives with cruelty and got arrested.
    Dies in Valladolid, Spain 1506.

    Sean Lemass- Political Leader in Republic of Ireland during 1960-1985
    Born in Dublin, Ireland 1899.
    fought in the 1916 Rising & fight for Independence
    1926- One of the Founding members of Fianna Fail with Eamon de Valera & Sean T O’Kelly
    Minister for Industry and Commerce in first Fianna Fail government of 1932
    During The Emergency served as Minister for Supplies- In charge of Rationing & Prices
    1959- Appointed as Taoiseach of Ireland and Leader of Fianna Fail- due to retirement of de Valera
    Primary goal- modernise Ireland and create jobs through foreign investment.
    In favour of IDA (Irish Development Agency) giving grants to foreign companies to set up in Ireland
    Lemass supported idea of Irish troops serving on UN Missions
    1962 - Supported the set up of a national TV Station- RTE
    First Leader to hold meetings with Prime Minister of Northern Ireland as he was interested in Promoting co-operation between North & South through Ecomony & Tourism
    Died in Dublin, Ireland 1971

    Michael Collins- A Leader in the Struggle for Independence 1900-1921
    Born in Cork, Ireland 1890.
    Emigrated to London- worked in Post Office & Bank.
    Joined the Irish Volunteers, returned to Ireland in 1916, fought in GPO in 1916 Rising
    After defeat, arrested, sent to prison camp in England and became a leader.
    After return to Ireland, organised Irish Volunteers, became member of Sinn Féin (led by Eamon de Velara)
    1919, Collins elected to First Dáil, forced to meet secret locations as it was illegal.
    Cathal Brugha and Collins set up IRA, began attacking RIC barracks in Ireland.
    Collins came up with new fighting method- Guerilla warfare
    Flying Colums used Guerilla Warfare to attack the British Army called the Black & Tans.
    Black & Tans retaliated by burning down towns and arresting large number of people
    Cork burnt down after ambush on the British by IRA in Kilmichael, Cork
    Collins organised a group of 12 Assassins called ‘The Twelve Apostles’
    He set up a network of spies throughout Ireland.
    November 1920- Bloody Sunday, 12 spectators of GAA match shot dead as a result of 14 British agents being shot dead.
    July 1921- truce called between IRA and British Government
    October 1921- Anglo-Irish Treaty signed between Ireland and Britain, Griffin & Collins signed for Ireland
    Huge Split in Ireland was result of treaty, led to Civil War
    Dies in Béal na Bláth, Cork 1922.

    A Person living in Sourthern Ireland during the Emergency
    1939- War broke out in Europe
    Irish Government of Eamon de Valera decided on Policy of neutrality
    Emergency Powers Act brought in to keep Neutrality
    New powers to the Government included Internment, Censorship of the Press, Correspondence & the government control on the economy
    Sean Lemass- Minister for Supplies introduced strict price controls and rationing of tea, sugar flour, petrol and gas.
    A huge increase in amount of Turf produced
    The train from Dublin to Cork used turf as fuel and the journey time increased a lot.
    In Dublin, gas was rationed strictly and inspectors called ‘Glimmer Men’ checked if people obeyed the rules
    The papers used very strict censorship and so did the radio
    There were no weather reports during the Emergency
    The LDF (Local Defence Force) was introduced as a reserve army
    Special forts were built along the coast to report anything supicious
    Even though Ireland was neutral, many Irish men & women left Ireland to join the Ally Army and work in ammunition factories in Britain.
    Over 30 People were killed when the Germans bombed the North Strand in Dublin by a mistake.
    The Emergency ended in Ireland after the War ended in 1945

    George Washington- Leader in Revolution
    Born in Virginia, America 1732.
    His family were wealthy farmers- grew tobacco & owned slaves
    Began career as soldier in Colonial Army, trained by British and became Officer
    Fought against Indians & French, became Commander of Virginia Troops
    Left army and returned to farm and began to dislike England
    Elected to Virginia Assembly
    Disliked Stamp Act & Angered with the Boston Massacre - British troops opened fired on protesters
    Became member of Continental Congress - held meetings in Philadelphia, each of the 13 colonies sent reps
    1775- Continental Army formed, Washington made Commander
    1776- Declaration of Independence issued, resulted in war between Colonial Army & British (Redcoats)
    The Colonial army knew countryside well but were part-time soldiers
    British way better equipped but had to travel long distances.
    Early victories were for the British in New York & Philadelphia
    The Colonial Army forced to spend Winter at Valley Forge- many soldiers died
    1778- French troops, arms and navy arrived to provide help for Americans as French leaders admired Washington
    Defeat for British at the Battle of Yorktown & British were forced to surrender
    Peace talks took place in Paris- America declared Republic.
    New American constitution drawn up & Senate & Congress formed.
    Washington elected President served for 8 years
    Died in Virgina, America 1799

    John F. Kennedy- Leader during Cold War crisis (Cuban Missile Crisis)
    Born in Massachusetts, America 1917
    1961- Elected as President
    Totally opposed to Communism
    1963- Major Cold War crisis erupted involving Cuba- close to mainland USA
    Early 1960s, Cuba became a Communist state led by Fidel Castro
    Cuba developed ties with USSR-caused problems for JFK
    US Military advisors planned invasion on Cuba involving Cuban exiles living in US
    Took place at Bay of Pigs- complete disaster for US
    As result Castro began to develop even closer economic & military links with USSR & leader Khrushchev
    1962- US U2 (unmanned aircrafts) planes took photos of missile launch site in Cuba
    Caused mass panic in US
    Ships from USSR heading towards Cuba carried what looked like missile parts
    JFK came under pressure with military advisors who wanted to bomb missile site & naval blockade around Cuba
    JFK ordered blockade to prevent these ships from reaching Cuba
    Created very tense situation- many believed Nuclear war was near
    After a few days- both sides backed down and a deal was made
    Phone line established between White House and Kremlin.
    Died in Dallas, Texas 1963

  • Registered Users Posts: 193 ✭✭Jack_OLantern

    Closed ac wrote: »
    Sample answer on "An tÁdh" le Padraig Ó Conaire:

    Bas nó brón
    (i) Is é an gearrscéal a roghnaigh mé ná An tÁdh le Pádraig Ó Conaire agus is é an téama a roghnaigh mé ná An Bás.
    (ii) Bhí an scéalaí, Pádraig, agus a bheirt chairde Séamas agus Micilín i bhfolach mar nach raibh siad ag iarraidh aon obair a dhéanamh. Bhí Pádraig ag iarrraidh dul ag bádóireacht ach ní raibh an bheirt eile sásta mar go bhfuair siad léasadh an uair dheireanach a thóg siad bád amach gan cead mar go raibh sé chomh dáinséarach sin.
    Bhí plean ag Pádraig, áfach. Dúirt sé go raibh Tom Beag ag dul go dtí margadh muc i nGarumna an lá sin agus gur cheart dóibh dul i ngan fhios do Tom. Bheartaigh siad dul i bhfolach sna málaí muc. Bheadh ar dhuine amháin fanacht chun a rá le Tom go raibh dhá mhuc eile sa bhád. Cé go raibh sé dáinsearach ní raibh aon duine sásta fanacht mar go raibh an triúr acu ag iarraidh dul amach sa bhád. Mar sin chuir siad ar chrannaibh é. Bhí ar an duine a tharraing an tráithnín ab fhaide fanacht. Fuair Pádraig an ceann ab fhaide agus bhí an-bhrón air.
    Léim na buachaillí eile sa bhád. Tháinig Tom agus cúigear eile in éineacht leis. Rinne Pádraig iarracht dul ar bord i ngan fhios dóibh ach theip air. D’imigh an bád agus d’fhan Pádraig ag féachaint ar an mbád agus é éadmhar. Shuigh sé síos ar chloch agus thit sé ina chodladh ag smaoineamh ar an spórt is spraoi a bheadh ag Séamas agus Micilín.
    Bhí an oíche ann nuair a dhúisigh sé. Agus é ar a shlí abhaile bhuail sé leis an máistir scoile agus máthair Mhicilín. Bhí siad ar thóir na mbuachaillí. D’inis Pádraig dóibh cá raibh na buachaillí eile. Thosaigh máthair Mhicilín ag caoineadh agus bhí ionadh ar Phádraig. Nuair a shroich sé a theach féin bhí a chlann ar fad agus athair Shéamais ag fanacht leis. D’inis sé a scéal arís agus d’fhág athair Shéamais gan focal a rá.
    Ansin dúirt a mháthair leis go raibh an t-ádh leis mar go ndeachaigh an bád go tóin poill le Séamas agus Micilín ar bord. Nuair a chuala Pádraig go bhfuair na buachailí eile bás thuig sé go raibh tuismitheoirí an bheirt eile faoi ghruaim agus go raibh an t-ádh dearg leis agus lena theaghlach.

    What does Bas mean? Is it like sadness? Also, is this essay generic, and will you lose marks for it? Thanks.

  • Registered Users Posts: 712 ✭✭✭MmmPancakes

    What does Bas mean? Is it like sadness? Also, is this essay generic, and will you lose marks for it? Thanks.

    Pretty sure bás = death, as a theme anyways

  • Registered Users Posts: 193 ✭✭Jack_OLantern

    Pretty sure bás = death, as a theme anyways

    Well, that won't help for Spás anyways!

  • Registered Users Posts: 1 StudyBuddy

    Geography - Restless Atmosphere

    Atmosphere: A blanket of air surrounding the earth. The atmosphere is made up of several different gases, nitrogen, oxygen and other gases.
    • Provides us with air to breathe
    • Absorbs heat from the sun during the day
    • Retains heat at night
    • Protects us from harmful rays

    Troposphere: Bottom layer of the atmosphere, it hold most of the earths gases and water vapour. Resulting in weather forms there.

    ==> 25% is reflected by cloud and dust in the atmosphere.
    ==> 25% is absorbed by the atmosphere.
    ==> 50% is absorbed by the earths land and oceans.
    The amount of sun that an area recives depends where they are on the earth in latitude and the tilt on the earths axis. Places near the equator are warmest than places near the poles because they have lower latitudes. If the rays have less area to cover more solar energy will be concerntrated on a certain area.

    Summer in the Northern Hemisphere= The earth is tilted towards the sun. Days are longer and nights are short. The weather is warmer
    Winter in the Northern Hemisphere= The earth is tilted away from the sun. Days are short and nights are long. The weather is colder.

    Wind: The troposphere is always moving, the moving air is caled wind. The faster it moves the more wind there is. As te wind moves it brings heat, hot and cold.
    • Sun heats different parts of the earth unequally.
    • As air is heated it expands and gets lighter, rising and creating Low atmospheric Pressure.
    • As air is cooled it gets heavier and descends and presses down on the earth creating High atmospheric Pressure.
    • Air goes from high to low pressure.

    • Wind is named by the direction they come from.
    • The most frequent wind is called prevailing wind.
    • Wind from the equator are warm and winds from the poles are cold.

    Global Wind Patterns
    As air blows from high to low pressure it creates a global wind pattern. Each hemisphere is divided into 3 wind belts.
    Formation of Northern Hemisphere Wind Belts:
    1. Near the equator wind is warm and rises creating LP.
    2. Air moves north and cools.
    3. Becomes heavier (at approx. 30°N) and falls creating HP.
    4. Cool air blows away from HP and replaces rising air.
    5. The cool airs rushes to 60°N and the equator creating a belt.
    Coriolis effect: The pressure tends to push the air in straight lines, but becuase the earth spins on its axis it changes the directions. Winds are pushed to the right of their direction on the northern hem. and pushed to the left on the southern hem, creating the Coriolis effect.
    Doldrums: Are areas close to the equator that has little or no winds.

    Ocean Currents: The ocean surface moves in a regular pattern creating currents. They are like rivers flowing through the ocean.
    Results from:
    • Unequal heating of the earth ⇒ ocean water expands due to heat, creating a slight slope, waters flows down and by the time ot reaches the poles it is so cold it sinks.
    • Prevailing winds ⇒ creates friction when it blows over the ocean dragging water along and roughly following the pattern.
    • The earths rotation ⇒ causes currents to move to the right on the northern hemisphere. Creating a clockwise pattern to develop in the north atlantic currents.
    Impacts= it effects the climate, the transfer of heat around the globe and brings warm currents from the equator.

    Air masses: are large bodies of air that have similar temp, pressure and moisture.
    ==> Maritime air masses bring rain
    ==> Continental air masses are dry
    ==> Polar air masses are cold
    ==> Tropical air masses are warm

    Fronts: a boundary between two air masses.
    Cold Front= occurs whena cold air mass pushes and replaces a warm air mass, forcing it to rise rapidly. As the mass rises it cools and condenses, developing clouds and bringing heavy rain and the front.
    Warm Front= occurs when a warm air mass meets a cold air mass. It rises above the cold air mass and cools and condenses, forming dark clouds, bringing continous rainfall.

    An area of low pressure and brings unsetted weather eg. Rain, cloud and wind. Atlanic depressions warm, moist tropical air from the south meets colder, drier polar air from the north. The different air masses don’t mix well so warm air rises and creates and area of low pressure. The air begins to move anti-clockwise and wraps around the warm air creating a warm sector. It eventually lifts the warm air off the ground ending the depression.
    An air mass of high pressure. There is no fronts in an anticyclone. Anit-cyclones bring settled weather eg. Clear, cloudless skies. In the winter is brings cold and frosty weather and in the summer hot and sunny weather. Winds in an anti-cyclone go in a clockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere.

    Water: is a renewable and natural resource, essential for life. Less than 3% of earths water in fresh water.
    Clouds: When water vapour in the air cools and condenses, forming tiny water droplets when billions of droplets join they become visible and creates a cloud. Cloudsare grouped by shape and height. The three main types are: Cirrus, Cumulus and Stratus.
    Precipitation: Rainfall is the most common type of rainfall, there are three types of rainfall, relief, cyclonic and convectional rainfall.

    Weather: the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place. Conditions change daily, over short distances.
    Elements: Weather study is meteorology. It involves measuring:
    • Temperature
    • Atmospheric pressure
    • Humidity
    • Wind speed and direction
    • Precipitation
    • Sunshine
    Preparing the forecast:
    1. Collect info from elements eg. Ground, air, sea
    2. Transfer data to Met Éireann headquaters
    3. Process info using computers and meteorologists
    4. Forecast is put into maps and charts
    5. Forecast become available to media

  • Registered Users Posts: 300 ✭✭positivealf

    climate, weather an economic activities please

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  • Registered Users Posts: 206 ✭✭examstress

    Anybody have a case study for economic inequality for Geog. ?;)