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N2 - Slane Bypass [planning decision pending]

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  • 23-01-2010 1:33am
    #1
    Registered Users Posts: 368 ✭✭


    The National Roads Authority has given details of plans for the new Slane by-pass, which is to be built 500m from the
    World Heritage Site at Newgrange. While the plan has been welcomed locally it is expected that there will be
    controversy. The bridge and the road through the village of Slane, Co Meath, is one of the most dangerous stretches
    roads in Ireland. Over 20 people have been killed in accidents and locals have long campaigned for a by-pass around
    the village. The NRA is proposing to build the route down river of the present bridge and to the east of the village.
    The proposed by-pass will be 500m away from the buffer-zone around the World Heritage Site at Brú na Bóinne, which
    comprises the ancient megalithic tombs at Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth. It will also impact on the museum dedicated to
    Ireland's only World War I poet Francis Ledwidge who came from Slane. The Environmental Impact Statement for the
    project acknowledges that 44 archaeological sites will be within 500m of the roadway and that the potential to
    uncover much more during work is high. While there will be a visual impact from the river, the Environmental Impact
    Statement says there will be negligible impact on the Site. (credit rte.ie)

    Route http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/File,39197,en.pdf

    The proposed N2 Slane Bypass will provide a dual carriage to the east of Slane Village on the N2 National Primary
    Route, from a southern terminal point 0.4km north of McGruder’s Cross at Johnstown, to a northern terminal point 0.3km
    south of Littlewood in the townland of Mooretown. The scheme is approximately 3.5km long and will cross the River
    Boyne on a new bridge at a location approximately 1.1km to the east of the existing N2 Slane Bridge. (credit meath.ie)
    Post edited by marno21 on


«13456731

Comments

  • Registered Users Posts: 3,284 ✭✭✭dubhthach


    I was under the impression that it's 500 metres from the buffer zone around Newgrange, not from Newgrange itself.

    Here's a map i found online (Tiny I know) which shows the zones.

    heritageani.gif

    The green zone doesn't exist in reality and is a proposal on website that map was taken from:
    The following divisions are depicted:

    Red: Core Area
    Only modest extensions allowed by Meath County Council, as describe in section 4.11.2 of Draft management plan: Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site, Dec. 2001.
    Blue: Buffer zone:
    Only small scale development allowed by Meath County Council, as describe in section 4.11.2 of Draft management plan: Brú na Bóinne World Heritage Site, Dec. 2001.
    Green: Guarding zone
    Only medium scale development allowed as proposed by me. Large-scale developments (like EPA is defining an incinerator) seems not correct. This extra zone also provides a proper gradual change in the designation of areas, which is support by Meath County Council.


  • Registered Users Posts: 7,588 ✭✭✭Bluetonic




  • Registered Users Posts: 757 ✭✭✭Bog Butter


    dubhthach wrote: »
    I was under the impression that it's 500 metres from the buffer zone around Newgrange, not from Newgrange itself.

    Correct Dubh. But Rory may be forgiven as RTE were erroneous in their reporting. I watched the main evening news the other day when it was reported. The reporter said the road would come within 500m of the monument in his opening headline. However when he went into the piece he said that it was the buffer zone. I expect nothing less from the media. I followed the reporting on the M3 when Lismullin was an issue. All media were very poor in their reporting and showed a lack of any real insight into the issues. I wonder do RTE even know they were erroneous in this case?

    By the way I have opened a thread on this bypass in the Archaeology section.


  • Registered Users Posts: 368 ✭✭Roryhy


    malman wrote: »
    By the way I have opened a thread on this bypass in the Archaeology section.

    Probably a wise move, this stretch is bound to be a goldmine for new archaeological finds!


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  • Closed Accounts Posts: 51 ✭✭tuathal


    dubhthach wrote: »
    I was under the impression that it's 500 metres from the buffer zone around Newgrange, not from Newgrange itself.

    Here's a map i found online (Tiny I know) which shows the zones.

    heritageani.gif

    The green zone doesn't exist in reality and is a proposal on website that map was taken from:

    Can you please tell us where you found this map? What proposal was made by whom, to widen the protection zone?


  • Banned (with Prison Access) Posts: 25,234 ✭✭✭✭Sponge Bob


    tuathal wrote: »
    What proposal was made by whom, to widen the protection zone?

    Most likely our dear friend Brian Guckian , OH WAIT !! :cool: Obligatory rail corridor of course :D

    park.jpg


  • Registered Users Posts: 2,091 ✭✭✭marmurr1916


    If this goes ahead as DC then it's probable that the N2 between Ashbourne and Slane will be upgraded to DC in the future.

    If that happens then traffic from the north heading towards Dublin will start using the Dunleer (jct. 12 of M1) to Collon road (R169) to avoid the M1 toll.

    The R169 from jct. 12 of the M1 to the N2 north of Collon is only about 6km long.

    If traffic through Collon starts increasing then there'll be pressure to extend the DC north from Slane and bypassing Collon.

    Eventually you'll have a motorway/DC toll-free alternative to the M1.


  • Registered Users Posts: 2,748 ✭✭✭crushproof


    I agree the Slane by pass is needed but is there really much point in improving the rest of the N2 as far as Ardee?! The M1 is less then 5km from the existing N2 on some parts.
    Perhaps all traffic thats going from Dublin to places beyond Slane should be directed via the M1 and then by link road across from the M1 to a new Ardee ring road that would connect the M1 link Road, N2 and N52?!

    It's just a thought after looking at the map of the area. Actually just got directions on Google Maps and low and behold the quickest way from Dublin to Carrickmacross is along the M1 and then onto the N2 at Ardee!


  • Moderators, Business & Finance Moderators, Motoring & Transport Moderators, Society & Culture Moderators Posts: 67,956 Mod ✭✭✭✭L1011


    There is already a link road from the M1 to Ardee! It was only built a few years ago too. Dublin->Derry traffic is also already signed along this, but sat navs, force of habit and toll avoidance means people still use the N2.

    Slane needs a bypass either way.


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  • Registered Users Posts: 3,284 ✭✭✭dubhthach


    tuathal wrote: »
    Can you please tell us where you found this map? What proposal was made by whom, to widen the protection zone?

    I got it from this site. The guy running the site appears to be Dutch. found it by simplying typing the following into Google image search:
    Newgrange buffer zone

    Regarding widening the buffer zone that's just the authors opinion on his own page. I don't believe he ever formally proposed that.

    http://www.iol.ie/~geniet/eng/indaver.htm


  • Banned (with Prison Access) Posts: 25,234 ✭✭✭✭Sponge Bob


    If there was one road project where the final route should be decided AFTER the archaeology is done then it is this one.

    If they find nothing bar a few fulachta fia the road can go ahead. If they find something noteworthy then they should reconsider.


  • Registered Users Posts: 2,091 ✭✭✭marmurr1916


    crushproof wrote: »
    I agree the Slane by pass is needed but is there really much point in improving the rest of the N2 as far as Ardee?! The M1 is less then 5km from the existing N2 on some parts,

    I agree but I think it's inevitably going to happen eventually if this bypass gets built.

    From the northern end of the Ashbourne bypass to the southern end of the Slane bypass (if it gets built) will be about 12km.

    I'm fairly sure that intermediate section of N2 would be upgraded to dual-carriageway if the Slane bypass goes ahead as DC.

    After that, Collon would be the only bottleneck on the route from the M50 to north of Dundalk.

    If Collon gets bypassed then more traffic will use the M/N2 to get onto the M1 north of Drogheda and avoid the M1 toll.

    People already do this anyway but there'll be a big increase if Slane and Collon get bypassed.
    crushproof wrote: »
    Perhaps all traffic thats going from Dublin to places beyond Slane should be directed via the M1 and then by link road across from the M1 to a new Ardee ring road that would connect the M1 link Road, N2 and N52?!

    There's already a link road between the N2 north of Ardee and the M1.

    The N33 connects both roads and bypasses Ardee.

    It's a quicker route to use for traffic heading to anywhere north of Ardee on the N2/A5 route. But people who don't like paying tolls still use the M/N2 between Dublin and Ardee.

    A Slane bypass, while necessary for safety and other reasons, is going to encourage more toll dodgers, including people who will use the M/N2 to get past the M1 toll on their way to Dundalk and points north, especially if Collon gets bypassed too.

    Slane definitely needs a bypass so there's not much that can be done about the impact of an improved M/N2 on the M1..unless they stick a toll on the M2!


  • Moderators, Business & Finance Moderators, Motoring & Transport Moderators, Society & Culture Moderators Posts: 67,956 Mod ✭✭✭✭L1011


    I see the twonk Salafia has been bitching about this, at least going off the letters page in the UK edition of the Irish Times today.


  • Registered Users Posts: 757 ✭✭✭Bog Butter


    The debate on this road scheme is begining to heat up. Go have a look at the Archaeology section under Science.


  • Registered Users Posts: 844 ✭✭✭GeneHunt


    The Irish Times - Wednesday, February 17, 2010
    FRANK McDONALD, Environment Editor

    FORMER ATTORNEY general John Rogers SC, who lives in the Boyne valley, will be among the objectors to plans by Meath County Council and the National Roads Authority (NRA) to build a bypass of Slane 500 metres from the Brú na Bóinne archaeological complex.

    Today is the last day for making submissions to An Bord Pleanála, which will adjudicate on the scheme under the 2006 Strategic Infrastructure Act.

    Depending on the number of objections, the board may decide to hold an oral hearing.

    The proposed route, running east of Slane, is being opposed by the newly formed Save Newgrange campaign, led by Vincent Salafia, who was prominent in the protracted struggle against the M3 motorway because of its proximity to the Hill of Tara.

    Yesterday, Mr Salafia called on An Bord Pleanála to extend the deadline, arguing that the public notice was inadequate, that more time was needed by the public and that access to information on the project had been “unreasonably curtailed”.

    He said Save Newgrange had lodged a formal complaint with the European Commission, alleging the public consultation process was “flawed” and calling on the commission to intervene so the deadline could be extended for 90 days.

    The planned new section of the N2 is 3.5km long and would cross the river Boyne on a new bridge at a location 1.1km to the east of the existing Slane Bridge, which has been the scene of several traffic incidents involving heavy goods vehicles (HGVs).

    The frequency and severity of these incidents have been reduced since 2002, when the county council introduced extra traffic signals and an overhead gantry on the steeper southbound approach to the bridge, to control HGVs.

    It is estimated that some 1,600 HGVs pass through the centre of Slane village every day. The volume of such traffic on the N2 led local residents to campaign for a ban on HGVs in Slane, and this was adopted by the county council in April 2009.

    The resolution was not implemented because of fears that it “could have serious consequences for Meath County Council in terms of possible legal exposure, delivery delays and business frustration”, according to director of services Eugene Cummins.

    The environmental impact statement (EIS) on the bypass proposal says it would remove through-traffic from the existing N2 through Slane, improving the village’s environment as well as giving an “improved level of service” on the route.

    However, it concedes that the new stretch of the N2 route would be “just over 500 metres from the Unesco World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne, comprising the three main prehistoric sites [of] Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth”, on the north bank of the Boyne.

    “The assessment identified 44 archaeological and cultural heritage constraints within 500m of the route. Of these, five will be impacted directly, two will be impacted indirectly and 34 will have no predicted impact,” according to the EIS.

    For the 10 sites that would be affected, the potential impact is rated as “potentially significant” for three, “moderate” for two, “slight” for another two and “no predicted impact” for one.

    The remaining two are “areas of undetermined archaeological potential”.

    http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2010/0217/1224264628445.html


  • Closed Accounts Posts: 1,735 ✭✭✭Irish and Proud


    GeneHunt wrote: »

    ...have these people nothing better to do??? :mad:

    ...the country is a mess, while certain individuals have the luxury of obstructing important infrastructural projects which might help Ireland to return to prosperity.

    How come these people have such time and money on their hands? :rolleyes:

    Roll on the Slane Bypass, New Ross Bypass, Galway Outer Ring etc!!!

    Regards!


  • Registered Users Posts: 7,854 ✭✭✭munchkin_utd


    ...have these people nothing better to do??? :mad:

    ...the country is a mess, while certain individuals have the luxury of obstructing important infrastructural projects which might help Ireland to return to prosperity.

    How come these people have such time and money on their hands? :rolleyes:

    Roll on the Slane Bypass, New Ross Bypass, Galway Outer Ring etc!!!

    Regards!
    Retired people have loads of time on their hands!!

    In this instance though I think the interference is almost allowable as theres more important projects that need financing than this.
    You could easily argue that the N2 south of Ardee is no longer a proper national primary route seeing as the majority of cars take the Motorway via Drogheda.

    If trucks are too tight to pay the toll (essentially the reasoning for the Slane project), it should not mean that they get dual carraigeway around Slane to allow them to get to Dublin for free rather than the perfectly good N1.

    Will they build a free bypass of Dunshaughlin or Kells too when trucks choose to avoid paying the toll on the M3 and use the "old road"?
    Sure maybe they should build a free bypass too of Fermoy so trucks can avoid the toll on the M8!!


  • Registered Users Posts: 17,849 ✭✭✭✭Idbatterim


    The road should be built asap! people quality of life, & actual life or death comes a hell of alot higher on the priority list than whatever the bloody hell these protesters are protesting over. Im sure the council knew the controversy this project would create before planning the route and have done their best to select the best route.


  • Registered Users Posts: 7,854 ✭✭✭munchkin_utd


    If the trucks are such a danger in Slane then simply ban them.
    Straight forward solution to a straight forward problem.

    Seriously.
    Trucks have no need to be in Slane village.
    They would not be put out to make a 2 miles detour onto the M1 at Ardee and follow the M1 straight to the Tunnel and the M50.

    In the medium term this could well the only solution anyhow.
    This issue will drag through the courts for god knows how long, so if you want a solution to trucks being a danger in Slane in the next 5 or 10 years then the only solution will be to remove the problem, reroute the trucks.


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  • Registered Users Posts: 3,284 ✭✭✭dubhthach


    I love the way the press are still saying that the proposed road is within 500 metres of the actual monuments. It's 500 metres from the buffer zone, but then that doesn't sound as sensational.


  • Registered Users Posts: 1,639 ✭✭✭Zoney


    Yes, if anyone here is trying to clarify that in the media by the way (e.g. letters or on air) rather than draw attention to that technicality (many will gloss over such boring details) just instead baldly state how far away it is from Newgrange itself. Whatever amount of kilometers that is (round up - say "almost X km"). Say people can go check it on a map if they want and just rubbish the 500 m figure as incorrect. It would be technically incorrect if someone was actually saying Newgrange itself would be 500 m away rather than just implying or referring to the boundary - of course people aren't saying that, but it's justifiable to use the same tactics in my opinion in countering the media nonsense.


  • Registered Users Posts: 5,858 ✭✭✭Chris_5339762


    The cynic inside me says that they purposefully picked a stupid route like this to cause legal problems and delay the project. They dont want to bypass Slane as it would be too tempting to bypass the M1 toll.


  • Registered Users Posts: 368 ✭✭Roryhy


    I was getting a bit confused with the different maps i was looking at regarding this route and its distance from buffer zones etc.. What i decided to do was get a pic from google maps and impose the information from different maps to make one that shows everything.
    The maps and drawings referenced are-
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/SlaneBypassPublications/File,39840,en.pdf
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/SlaneBypassPublications/File,39839,en.pdf
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/SlaneBypassPublications/File,39838,en.pdf
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/SlaneBypassPublications/File,39837,en.pdf
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Roads/MajorRoadsProjects/N2SlaneBypass/SlaneBypassPublications/File,39197,en.pdf
    http://www.meath.ie/LocalAuthorities/Publications/PlanningandDevelopmentPublications/CountyMeathPlanningPublications/CountyMeathDevelopmentPlan2007-2013/File,6798,en.jpg
    And here it is-
    4366751880_053bb408e9_b.jpg
    What i found is-
    1. the road surface itself will be slightly over 700m from the buffer zone.
    2. the road surface itself will 2.55km from Knowth at its nearest point.
    3. the closest point to Newgrange will be approx 4km.


  • Closed Accounts Posts: 6,093 ✭✭✭Amtmann


    Big opinion piece in the Irish Times today. The entire motorway programme has been criticised.
    Frank McDonald

    The National Roads Authority is bent on pursuing a plan that would visually compromise the setting of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth

    THIRTEEN YEARS ago, when I went to Japan for the first time to cover the Kyoto climate change summit, someone who knows the country well told me that it was largely run for the benefit of its concrete industry. “After building all the motorways and high-speed rail lines, they got into concreting river banks and even beaches,” he said.

    For the past decade or more, it seems that Ireland has been run for the benefit of CRH plc, Siac, Seán Quinn, the asphalt men and quarry owners and a legion of consultant engineers, archaeologists and greedy farmers. They’ve all done very well from the roll-out of motorways across the length and breadth of the country.

    Nobody can say for sure how much all of this has cost, but it is certain that well over €20 billion has been spent so far. Although Minister for Transport Noel Dempsey recently announced that the allocation for national roads this year was being cut by €325 million, the National Roads Authority will still have more than €1 billion to spend.

    The authority’s programme is so overblown that when the controversial M3 is finally completed this year, Meath alone (coincidentally, Dempsey’s own constituency) will end up being traversed by four motorways – the M1, the M2, the M3 and the M4. Three of these routes pass remarkably close to each other – only 20km apart in some places.

    Any Martian could see that we lost the run of ourselves in building all of these roads fanning out from Dublin.

    Instead of “shadowing” the existing routes we inherited, a bit of lateral thinking would surely have led us to build an entirely different motorway network, with (for example) Waterford or Limerick being served on the way to Cork.

    If the roads authority carries on unchecked, we will end up with nearly 1,000km of motorways by 2015. And that doesn’t even include an eastern bypass for Dublin – to enclose the city in a “motorway box” – and an outer ring road from Drogheda right around to Naas, which would function in effect as a bypass for the now engorged M50.

    The latest bypass proposal is for the village of Slane, Co Meath. Everyone who has attended rock concerts over the years at Slane Castle will be familiar with the old bridge over the river Boyne; it is set at right-angles to the N2, and this hazard is aggravated by the fact that southbound traffic approaches it on a steep incline from the village.

    As noted by an environmental impact statement (EIS) prepared for the authority and Meath County Council, “there have been numerous traffic accidents, some fatal, over the years – typically when heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) descend on the steep hill and collide with other traffic or crash through the bridge parapet”. In short, it’s dangerous.

    The proposed 3.5km bypass would run east of Slane; opting for a westerly route would have brought it through the estate of the Marquis of Mountcharles. As a result, the EIS concedes, the planned dual-carriageway, with a new bridge over the Boyne, would pass just over 500 metres from the Unesco World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne.

    This is at the root of growing opposition to the scheme. Having given a right royal slap in the face to Tara with the M3, despite widespread protests, the authority is now bent on pursuing a plan that would visually compromise the setting of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth, the three main prehistoric sites of the Brú na Bóinne archaeological complex.

    The EIS identifies five archaeological sites along the route that “will be impacted directly”, as well as a further three “areas of undetermined archaeological potential” and two other sites that “will be impacted indirectly”. In cold technical language, we are told that the predicted impacts range from “slight” or “moderate” to “potentially significant”.

    On the other hand, the EIS says, “it should be noted that the N2 Slane bypass would have a positive impact in re-routing heavy traffic from Slane Bridge and Slane Village”. This would bring relief to its residents, who currently endure some 1,600 HGVs trundling through the village on the N2 each day, according to Meath County Council.

    That’s why the council adopted a resolution to ban HGVs travelling north-south through Slane on April 6th, 2009.

    The ban has not been implemented, ostensibly because of fears that it “could have serious consequences [for the council] in terms of possible legal exposure, delivery delays and business frustration”, an official said.

    Could it be that the adoption of such a straightforward solution, forcing truck drivers to use the M1 instead, might have got in the way of a much more expensive and potentially destructive bypass plan? Certainly, many of the objectors will be arguing for the minimalist approach at an oral hearing by An Bord Pleanála – if there is one.

    The appeals board has a history of rubber-stamping major road schemes. Only one, the proposed 1km “inner relief route” for Athy, Co Kildare, was flatly turned down; it “would fail both as a street and as a relief road because it would continue to bring traffic, including heavy commercial vehicles, through the town centre”, the board said.

    The abortive proposal to ban HGVs using the N2 in Slane is surely a valid alternative to the new dual-carriageway planned by the roads authority and its engineering consultants, Roughan O’Donovan.

    By refusing permission for this scheme, An Bord Pleanála would be laying down a useful marker against numerous others even now being hatched.
    http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2010/0218/1224264713512.html

    This will be even worse than Tara, methinks. Every solstice worshiper, alternative type and crusty from Warsaw to Washington state will bivouac outside Slane, bent on impeding construction.


  • Closed Accounts Posts: 1,735 ✭✭✭Irish and Proud


    Retired people have loads of time on their hands!!

    In this instance though I think the interference is almost allowable as theres more important projects that need financing than this.
    You could easily argue that the N2 south of Ardee is no longer a proper national primary route seeing as the majority of cars take the Motorway via Drogheda.

    If trucks are too tight to pay the toll (essentially the reasoning for the Slane project), it should not mean that they get dual carraigeway around Slane to allow them to get to Dublin for free rather than the perfectly good N1.

    Will they build a free bypass of Dunshaughlin or Kells too when trucks choose to avoid paying the toll on the M3 and use the "old road"?
    Sure maybe they should build a free bypass too of Fermoy so trucks can avoid the toll on the M8!!

    ...but it's just the 3.5km around Slane I'm talking about - even if it's just an S2 job, Slane needs a bypass - even if the road becomes the R135. The current Boyne Crossing is just too dangerous! It's purely a safety issue!

    Regards!


  • Closed Accounts Posts: 1,735 ✭✭✭Irish and Proud


    Furet wrote: »
    Big opinion piece in the Irish Times today. The entire motorway programme has been criticised.


    http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/opinion/2010/0218/1224264713512.html

    This will be even worse than Tara, methinks. Every solstice worshiper, alternative type and crusty from Warsaw to Washington state will bivouac outside Slane, bent on impeding construction.

    Frank Mc Donald!!!!

    What else do you expect from a long known anti-car fanatic!!! :mad:

    If he had his way, all cars would be banned in this country!!! :mad:

    As for fanatics coming in from abroad - we should treat them in exactly they way we treated the English hooligans at Lansdowne Road in 1994 - Garda Dogs Units etc!

    Regards!


  • Registered Users Posts: 2,091 ✭✭✭marmurr1916


    Just sent this email to Frank McDonald.
    Dear Mr McDonald,

    According to your article, 'the planned [N2] dual-carriageway, with a new bridge over the Boyne, would pass just over 500 metres from the Unesco World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne'.

    This is a distortion.

    The proposed bypass would pass 500 metres to the east of the eastern edge of the buffer zone around the Brú na Bóinne site.

    The road itself would be about 4km from the Newgrange site and over 2.5 km from Knowth.

    This issue is clearly going to cause much controversy in the near future.

    It would be helpful if reporting was accurate and undistorted.

    Yours,


  • Registered Users Posts: 2,748 ✭✭✭crushproof


    While I do somewhat agree with the ridiculous approach to building so many motorways and the destruction of our heritage I still believe it's a matter of urgency that some sort of Slane by pass is built. It should be obvious to everyone that the Boyne needs a new crossed as the current bridge is wholly unadequate even for local traffic, never mind HGVs.

    A simple two lane bypass on the route planned will do the job, no need whatsoever for a dual carriageway.


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  • Registered Users Posts: 2,091 ✭✭✭marmurr1916


    Just sent this email to Frank McDonald.

    Frank McDonald's reply.
    XXXX, here's what the EIS commissioned by Meath County Council and the NRA has to say -- proving that there was no distortion on my part! ... Frank

    10.0 ARCHITECTURAL, ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
    10.1 Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
    The route is just over 500m from the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Brú na
    Boínne; the Site, comprising the three main prehistoric sites of the Brú na Bóinne
    Complex, Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth, situated on the north bank of the River
    Boyne, was primarily designated as a World Heritage Site as it holds Europe's
    largest and most important concentration of prehistoric megalithic art. The
    monuments there had social, economic, religious and funerary functions (UNESCO
    2009).


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