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  • Closed Accounts Posts: 83 ✭✭Steve Collins

    Heres a people in History answer for a religious reformer, Martin Luther. I got it from Shortcuts to Success, so it should be helpful for the people who don't have the book. Ill post as much of these as I can, theres loads in the book:

    Martin Luther - a religious reformer

    Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) was born in the German state of Saxony. His father was a prosperous copper miner who reared Martin very strictly.

    Martin became a student of law at Erfurt University. One day he was caught out in a thunderstorm. He vowed that if his life was spared, he would become a monk. Shortly afterwards he joined the Augustinian order.

    Martin Luther became convinced that he was a terrible sinner and only faith in God could save his soul. This idea was called Justification by Faith Alone.

    While Luther was a well-known professor at the University of Wittenberg, Friar John Tetzel came to town offering indulgences in return for contributions to the rebuilding fund for St. Peters Basilica in Rome. Luther was so angry that he printed his ninety-five theses against such practices, and nailed them to the church door. Luthers theses (arguments) contradicted several Church teachings.

    Pope Leo X issued a papal bull condemning Luther. Then Emperor Charles V called a meeting of princes, known as the Diet of Worms. In the Edict of Worms, Luther was declared to be a heretic and an outlaw.

    But Luther was protected by Frederick of Saxony in the princes castle at Wartburg. While staying in the castle, Luther translated the Bible into German.

    Luthers Protestant ideas were published in a book called the Confessions of Augsburg. Lutheranism spread rapidly, especially in northern Germany and in Scandinavia. Luther believed that priests should be allowed to marry. He himself married an ex-nun Catherine von Bora. They had five children.

  • Registered Users Posts: 3,849 ✭✭✭bluejay14

    Right so here we go some Irish history:
    Political Developments in the 20th Century

    -Sonce the 1600s and the Plantations o fUlster, Ireland had a large minority Protestant population.
    - During the Industrial Revolution , the north of the country where most of the Protestants lived was the only area to experience industrialisation.This was based around Belfast and Derry.This industrial growth led to close links between England and Wales.
    - At the beginning of the 19th century, Ireland was joined politically to Britain by the Act of Union, 1800.For over a century, Ireland was ruled by the British Parliament in Westminister, London.

    -wanted to continue this union with Gret Britain.Unionists were loyal to the crown and parliament and wanted to remain under British rule.They feared a Catholic run Ireland because they thought "Home Rule was Rome Rule", that an Irish parliament would discriminate against Protestants.If Home Rule was granted, unionists feared they would loose trading links with Britain and lose land gained during the plantations.

    -believed Ireland shouold be more independent of Britain.
    1.Constitutinal Nationalists
    - represented by the Home Rule Party.They wanted Ireland to have it's own parliament, but Westminister could continue to rule Ireland in matters of forgeign affairs.This partial independence would be achieved by peaceful means.
    2.Militant Nationalists
    - were known as Republicans and supported the ideas of the Irish Republican Brotherhood(IRB).They wanted a republic that was totally independent of Britain.They believed this could only be achieved by armed rebellion.

    Cultural Nationalism
    In the late 19th century, the Irish language, heritage and culture was in decline.Towards the end of the 19 th century a number of organisations were set up to revive the Irish language and culture.
    1.Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)
    In 1884, Nichael Cusack set up the GAA, with the aim of encouraging Irish sports, such as hurling and gaelic football.It drew up rules for these games and organised competitions.
    2.Gaelic League
    Was established by Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill in 1893.It's aim was to revive the Irish language.It published a newspaper Claidheamh Soluis, edited by Patric Pearse.

    I couldnt be bothered finishing these right now.Maybe next week if I think of it....

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 83 ✭✭Steve Collins

    More people in History:

    A native Irish landowner who lost land in a plantation

    I am Seán O'Neill of Tír Eoghain, a clansman of the great Hugh O'Neill. In 1609 I was driven from my land because of the Plantation of Ulster.

    Before the English interfered we raised cattle on our land. Hugh O'Neill was the leader of our clan, but it was the clan, not Hugh, that actually owned the land. A planter named John Smyth now grows crops on 2,000 acres of our land. He has been 'granted' the land by King James I. According to English law, he now personally owns the land and will leave it to his eldest son when he dies.

    In 1607, Hugh was forced by the English to leave Ireland. This 'Flight of the Earls' gave King James the sxcuse to declare Hugh a traitor and so to plant all O'Neill land. The land was give to three types of planter: undertakes, servitors (who had served the King as civil servants or soliders) and 'loyal' Irishmen who betrayed their own people.

    Smyth is an undertaker. This means he has undertaken (promised) to keep the land safe for the King and to practice the Protestant religion. He is not allowed to take Irish tenanta.

    Smyth has built a stone castle and a walled enclouse called a bawn for his protection. He will need them! My clansmen and I have now retreateed to the woods and mountains from where we attack the foreigners. The English and Scots settles live in fear of us. They call us tories.

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    The Easter Rising Of 1916

    Why did they choose the Easter of 1916 to stage an uprising?
    The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) (a secret organization who opposed British rule and wanted to make Ireland a free democratic state) saw an opportunity to try and overthrow British rule at Easter in 1916, This was a good time to try and stage an uprising as England was in the middle of fighting in World War 1. It was also unexpected as it was a holy day. The reason why this date was chosen is summed up by the phrase: ‘England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity’

    By whom was it planned?
    It was mainly planned by the Military Council of the IRB which included Thomas Clarke, Patrick Pearse, Sean McDermott, Thomas Mac Donough, Joseph Plunkett and Eamon Ceannt.
    The Military Council also persuaded James Connolly and the Irish Citizen’s Army to take part in the uprising.

    How did they try to get outside help and what was the result?
    Roger Casement who was based in Germany worked to get German support for Irish independence. They secured 20,000 rifles from Germany which was going to bring the rifles to Ireland aboard the Aud which was disguised as a Norwegian fishing trawler. The Aud successfully arrived in Tralee Bay but the rebels were unable to obtain the rifles because the Aud was captured and scuttled by the British before the Irish arrived. Roger Casement as a result was arrested and hung by the British.
    As a result of the failure of the arms delivery, MacNeill stated he would not take part unless they were attacked first. However, MacNeill was tricked by a forged document and agreed to allow the Irish Volunteers take part at Easter. However, MacNeill found out the document was a forgery and called off maneuvers on Easter Sunday.

    What were the main events of the Rising?
    Despite MacNeill’s withdrawal of support, the Military Council decided to go ahead on Easter Monday. On Easter Monday, less people than expected turned out. The rising was confined to Dublin and bound for military failure as the rebels were forced to barricade themselves into buildings such as the GPO with limited supplies.
    Patrick Pearse read the Proclamation of the Republic outside the GPO. In it, the Military Council of the IRB, proclaimed itself the "Provisional Government of the Irish Republic" and proclaimed Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom.
    Altogether, 1500 rebels took key buildings in the city such as the GPO, Boland’s Mills, Jacob’s Factory and The Four Courts. However, they failed to take Dublin Castle which was a mistake.
    British reinforcements were called in from the Curragh and England to try to halt the uprising.
    A patrol vessel called Helga, sailed upriver from Kingstown. The Helga shelled the GPO with help from the guns at Trinity College.
    On Saturday, the sixth day, the rebels surrendered unconditionally.

    What were the main consequences?
    1) There was a lot of death and destruction. Approximately 500 people were killed and even more were injured. There was a lot of damage to buildings and streets in Dublin.
    2) Because of the death and destruction, many Dubliners were angry with the rebels for starting the uprising.
    3) 3,430 men and 79 women were arrested, although most were subsequently released by the British. In a series of courts martial, ninety people were sentenced to death including all seven signatories of the Proclamation: Thomas J. Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, P. H. Pearse, Éamonn Ceannt, James Connolly and Joseph Plunkett.
    4) 2000 people were interned (confined as a political or military prisoner) in England and Wales.
    5) It was believed Sinn Féin was behind the uprising and they became popular. Éamon de Valera (who was a commander during the uprising) became its leader.

    I had to type these out as my history homework so I figured I'd put them up here. :)

  • Registered Users Posts: 1,049 ✭✭✭CookieMonster.x

    Thanks Bulejaymraz and WanderingSoul.

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  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Just a warning, check my Easter Rising notes against your book to check if they're correct because I actually haven't covered Irish History at all: that was a project.

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Okay, I have 13 A4 pages worth of Biology notes (so far) so I'm going to spilt the notes into multiple posts.

    Living Things

    • Biology is the study of living things (organisms).

    The seven characteristics of living things
    • Movement
    • Respiration
    • Sensitivity
    • Feeding
    • Excretion
    • Reproduction
    • Growth
    • *For something to be alive it must possess all of these characteristics.

    Animals can be divided into two main groups - Vertebrates and Invertebrates.

    Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone

    Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone

    Vertebrates can be divided up into five groups - Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals

    A key is a set of questions used to identify a plant or animal.


    Structures found in plant and animal cells
    • Nucleus - controls the activities of the cell. Contains chromosomes made of DNA.
    • Cell membrane - controls what substances enter and leave the cell.
    • Cytoplasm - watery fluid. All other structures of the cell are suspended in it.
    • Vacuoles - store substances.
Structures found in plant cells only
    • Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
    • Vacuole - contains cell sap.
    • Cell wall - Supports the cell. Made of cellulose.

    Tissues, Organs, Systems
    • A tissue is a group of similar cells, e.g. nerve tissue, muscle tissue.
    • An organ is a group of tissues, e.g. heart, brain.
    • A system is a group of organs, e.g. digestive system, nervous system.

    The Microscope
    • The eyepiece is the piece you look through
    • The objective lens is just above the stage.
    • The stage is where you put the slide.
    • The focus knob moves the objective lens up or down to focus the object you are looking at.

    Preparing a microscope slide
    1. Place a drop of water on a glass slide.
    2. Place the object to be viewed on top of the water.
    3. Gently lower the cover-slip onto the slide. Avoid trapping air bubbles.
    4. Apply some drops of stain to one side of the cover-slip and draw it across the sample by soaking some fluid from the other side with paper.

    • Growth results from cell division.


    • Food is needed for growth energy, repair and protection against disease.

    The five major nutrients

    • Sugars: a fast supply of energy (fruit, chocolate, soft drinks)
    • Starch: a slower supply of energy (bread, potatoes, rice)
    • Fibre: prevents constipation (brown bread, cereals, vegetables)
    • Store energy (butter, cream, milk)
    • Growth & repair (lean meat, fish, cheese)
    • Iron: maintain a healthy blood supply (red meat, green vegetables)
    • Calcium: maintain strong bones (milk, cheese)
    • Vitamin C: prevents scurvy (oranges, cabbages, kiwis)
    • Vitamin A: prevents night blindness (carrots, milk)

    A Balanced Diet
    • The six constituents of a balanced diet are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water.
    • A balanced diet is a diet which contains the right amounts of each of the six constituents.

    • To test for starch add iodine solution to the food sample. It will turn blue-black if starch is present.
    • To test for protein add copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide. It will turn violet if protein is present.
    • To test for glucose, add benedict's solution and heat. It will turn brick red if glucose is present.
    • To test for fats rub the food sample on brown paper. A translucent spot will appear if fats are present.


    Stages of Digestion
    • The five stages of digestion are ingestion, digestion, absorbtion, assimilation and egestion.
    • Ingestion is the taking of food into the mouth
    • Digestion is the breaking down of food
    • Absorbtion is the absorbtion of molecules of food into the blood in the small intestine
    • Assimilation is the taking of food molecules from the blood into body cells.
    • Egestion is the passing of undigested food out of the body.
    • Physical digestion involves the chewing of food in the mouth and churning of food in the stomach.
    • The four types of teeth are incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
    • Chemical digestion is the breaking down of food by enzymes.

    The Digestive System
    • The digestive system is a group of organs working together to break down food and absorb the nutrients from it.
    • The mouth chews food and mixes it with enzymes, eg. amylase in saliva.
    • The oesophagus carries food to the stomach by muscular action (peristalsis).
    • The stomach stores and churns food and mixes it with digestive juices. It also produces hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria.
    • The liver produces bile to break down fats.
    • The small intestine contains enzymes to break down food. Food molecules are absorbed into the blood in the small intestine.
    • The pancreas produces enzymes.
    • The large intestine passes water into the blood.

    • An enzyme is a chemical which speeds up a chemical reaction in the body without being used up in the reaction.
    • An enzyme acts on a substrate to produce the product.
    • Amylase is an enzyme which breaks down starch (substrate) into maltose (product).

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Blood & The Circulatory System

    • Plasma is the liquid part of the blood.
    • Red blood cells are the most numerous blood cells. They are made in bone marrow and they contain haemoglobin to transport oxygen. They also give the blood its red colour.
    • Iron is needed to make red blood cells.
    • White blood cells fight disease.
    • Platelets clot the blood to stop bleeding.
    • Red blood cells have a biconcave shape and no nucleus.

    The Circulatory System
    • The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessels.

    Blood Vessels
    • Veins bring blood to the heart. They have a wider lumen than arteries, and valves to prevent backflow of blood.
    • Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They have a narrow lumen and have no valves.
    • Capillaries are thin blood vessels (1 cell thick) that allow substances to pass into and out of the blood. They join veins to arteries.

    The Heart
    • Made of cardiac muscle - never tires
    • Contracts to pump blood around the body
    • Consists of 4 chambers - right & left atriums, right & left ventricles.
    • Right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
    • Left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. The heart wall is therefore thicker/stronger on the left.
    • Has 2 valves to control the direction of the flow of blood.

    Exercise and the rate of heartbeat
    • The normal heartbeat rate of a resting human is 70 beats per minute.
    • Exercise increases the heartbeat rate. This is because during exercise the cells need to produce more energy, so they require more food and oxygen.

    Body Temperature
    • The normal body temperature in the human body is 37°C.
    • Blood flow helps regulate body temperature.


    • Respiration is the release of energy from food.
    • Respiration produces energy, carbon dioxide and water vapour.
    • Aerobic respiration requires oxygen.
    • The word equation for aerobic respiration is: Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water Vapour.

    The Breathing System
    • The human breathing system consists of the nose, mouth, windpipe, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and diaphragm.
    • Rings of cartilage surround the windpipe, bronchi and bronchioles to keep them open.
    • Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli.
    • Carbon dioxide is tested for by passing it through limewater. Limewater turns milky if carbon dioxide is present.
    • Exhaled air contains more carbon dioxide than inhaled air.

    • Smoking for a long time can cause lung cancer, but it can also have other harmful effects.
    • Particles of smoke irritate the lungs and produce mucus, leading to diseases such as bronchitis.
    • Smoking during pregnancy can damage the baby.


    • Excretion is the removal of wastes from the body.

Excretory Organs
    • The human excretory organs are the lungs, the skin and the kidneys.
    • The lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water.
    • The skin excretes sweat (water and salts).
    • The kidneys excrete urine (urea, water and salts) .

    The Urinary System
    • The kidneys filter the blood and remove urea and salts. They also remove water if the blood is too dilute.
    • Blood is brought to the kidneys in the renal artery.
    • Blood exits the kidneys in the renal vein.
    • Urine passes from the kidneys through the ureters, bladder and urethra.


    Reproduction is the production of a new individual of the same species.
    • A gamete is a sex cell.
    • Sexual reproduction is the fusion of a male and female gamete.
    • The male gamete is the sperm.
    • The female gamete is the egg.

    The Male Reproductive System
    • Testes: produce sperm
    • Sperm is mixed with seminal fluid to form semen.
    • Seminal vesicle: produces the seminal fluid.

    The Female Reproductive System
    • The egg is made in the ovary
    • Eggs are released every month until the menopause.

    The Menstrual Cycle
    • An egg is released from the ovary every 28 days.
    • the release of an egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
    • In days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle the lining of the uterus breaks down(menstruation).
    • In days 6-12 the womb lining builds up again.
    • In days 13-15 ovulation occurs.
    • In days 16-28 the lining of the uterus stays built up.
    • The fertile period is the time in the menstrual cycle when the woman is most likely to become pregnant if she has intercourse. The fertile period lasts from day 11 to day 18.

    • Fertilisation is the fusion of a male and female gamete.
    • The fusion of the male and female gametes forms a zygote.
    • After an egg has been fertilised it attaches itself to the lining of the uterus. This is called implantation.

    • The average length of human pregnancy is 40 weeks.
    • During pregnancy the placenta allows food and oxygen to pass into the baby's blood, and wastes to pass into the mother's blood.
    • The embryo is protected by amniotic fluid.
    • Contraception is a means by which fertilisation is prevented.


    Inheritable Characteristics
    • These are passed from parent to child.
    • Examples: eye colour, facial shape, blood group.

    Non-Inheritable Characteristics
    • These are acquired during life and are not controlled by genes.
    • Examples: scars, accent, muscle strength.

    • These are strips of DNA wrapped around a protein.
    • Every human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes except for the egg and sperm cells which contain 23 single chromosome.
    • Genes are sections of chromosomes which determine the chemical make up of the body.
    • When a cell divides exact copies of its chromosomes are formed.
    • At fertilisation the sperm cell and the egg cell combine to create 23 pairs of chromosomes.

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    The Skeleton and Muscles

    The Skeleton, Bone and Muscles
    • The functions of the skeleton are support, protection and movement.
    • Muscles are attached to bones. When they contract they allow us to move.
    • All vertebrates have a spine made up of vertebrae.
    • Bone is a living tissue so it can grow and repair.
    • The presence of calcium in bones is what makes them hard.

    • Fused joints do not allow movement, eg. the bones of the skull
    • Ball and socket joints allow movement in any direction, eg the shoulder and the pelvis.
    • Hinge joints allow movement in one direction only, e.g. the knee.

    Ligaments and Tendons
    • Ligaments join bone to bone.
    • Cartilage acts as a shock absorber between bones.
    • Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant.
    • Tendons join muscle to bone.

    Antagonistic Muscles
    • Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that pull in opposite directions, e.g. the biceps and triceps of the arm.
    • To raise the arm, the biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes. To lower the arm, the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes.

    Bones in the skeleton that you need to know
    • Skull
    • Shoulder Blade
    • Breast Bone
    • Ribs
    • Vertebrae
    • Pelvis
    • Collar Bone
    • Humerus (HL only)
    • Ulna (HL only)
    • Radius (HL only)
    • Femur (HL only)
    • Tibia (HL only)
    • Fibula (HL only)

    The Nervous System

    The Central Nervous System
    • The central nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal chord and the nerves.
    • Sensory nerves carry messages to the brain.
    • Motor nerves carry messages from the brain.
    • In certain cases there is no time to decide what to do, e.g. if you place your hand on something hot. The message goes from your hand to the spinal chord. From there a message is sent to your arm telling it to pull your arm away.

    The Eye
    • Sclera: a white protective layer (3rd layer from the inside).
    • Choroid Layer: a dark layer rich in blood vessels (2nd layer from the inside).
    • Retina: the light sensitive layer (1st layer from the inside).
    • Cornea: this allows light into the eye.
    • Aqueous Humour: liquid that helps focus light onto the retina (in the area between the cornea and the lens).
    • Iris: a muscle that controls the amount of light entering the eye.
    • Lens: this focuses light onto the retina.
    • Ciliary Muscles: hold the lens in place and controls its shape to allow us to see objects near and far away.
    • Optic Nerve: brings images to the brain in the form of electric pulses.
    • Fovea/Yellow Spot: the most sensitive part of the retina.
    • Blind Spot: the point where the retina joins the optic nerve.
    • Vitreous Humour: jelly-like fluid that gives the eye shape (in the main part of the eye).


    Ecology & Habitat Study

    • Ecology is the study of the relationships of living things with one another and their environment (everything surrounding an organism).
    • A habitat is a small part of an ecosystem where a plant or animal lives. Eg: a woodland
    • An ecosystem is a large area with similar plants and animals. Eg: Desert & Rainforest.

    Food Chains & Webs
    • A food chain is a chain showing how organisms are linked by what they eat.
    Solar energy is transferred through a food chain.
    • The feeding level is the position of a particular organism in a food chain. Producers are at the first feeding level.
    • A food web is a number of intersected food chains.

    Producers, Consumers & Decomposers
    • Producers are green plants that make their own food.
    • Consumers are all organisms other than producers.
    • Only animals can be consumers.
    • There are two types of consumers: carnivores and herbivores.
    • Carnivores only eat meat, eg. hawk, fox.
    • Herbivores only eat plants, eg. cow, rabbit.
    • Decomposers are organisms that feed on dead animals or plants.

    • Adaption is a change that plants or animals make to help the survive better in their habitat.
    • Example 1: Dandelions have a parachute mechanism to disperse seeds.
    • Example 2: Hedgehogs have sharp spines to protect them from predators.
    • Example 3: Ladybirds have a brightly coloured shell to warn of their bitter taste.

    • Competition for scarce resources occurs in a habitat between organisms.
    • Plants compete for light, eg. oak trees grow tall to catch more light.
    • Animals compete for food, eg. hawks and foxes compete for the same food.

    • When organisms in a habitat need each other for survival.
    • Example: Flowers provide nectar for insects and insects pollinate flowers.

    Conservation, Pollution & Human Activity
    • Conservation is careful management of a habitat.
    • Pollution is damage to the environment caused by the dumping of waste materials.
    • Air pollution is caused by burning fossil fuels.
    • Water pollution is caused by oil spillages and fertilisers being washed into rivers.
    • Soil pollution is caused by acid rain, overuse of fertilisers and the dumping of waste.
    • Human Activities have both positive and negative effects on the environment.
    • Positive effects of Human Activity:
    1) green spaces are maintained.
    2) reducing our energy needs by increasing insulation in buildings.
    3) using unleaded instead of leaded petrol and smokeless fuels.
    • Negative effects of Human Activity:
    1) global warming as a result of the burning of fossil fuels.
    2) overuse of fertilisers on farms.

    Tools for a Habitat Study
    • Quadrat: a square frame with an area of 1 metre squared used to estimate plant & insect numbers. Used by placing randomly in a habitat multiple times and recording the number of plants/insects in the frame. This is then averaged to find the number of plants/animals per square metre.
    • Pooter: used to suck up small insects to be examined.
    • Pitfall Trap: small insects fall into a can in the ground which is covered by a board balancing on stones. The insects are then collected the next day and examined.
    • Beating Tray: a tray is put under a shrub/tree and beat with a stick. Small insects are dislodged from the shrub/tree and fall onto the tray.
    • Line Transect: a rope marked at regular intervals which is placed across a habitat. A plant directly underneath or touching a mark is recorded.

    That's all I have for now. :)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 329 ✭✭mista_2k10

    Very good notes there. Well done! :)

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  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Thank you. :)

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    I think I've finished all my notes for Biology. Not bad for a day's work. :pac:

    Photosynthesis & Tropisms

    • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their food.
    • Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of a plant.
    • The green chemical chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis. It is found in the chloroplasts in a plant cell.
    • Chlorophyll traps light energy and uses it to combine carbon dioxide and water. This forms glucose and oxygen.
    • The water needed for photosynthesis is collected from the soil through the roots and is transported around the plant in xylem cells.
    • Leaves have air spaces between their leaves called stomata. This is where the product Oxygen leaves the plant and Carbon Dioxide enters the plant.
    • The three things needed for photosynthesis to occur are light, water and carbon dioxide.
    • The word equation for photosynthesis is :
    Carbon Dioxide + Water
    (Light & Chlorophyll)
    > Oxygen + Glucose

    • A tropism is a growth of a plant in response to a stimulus, e.g. gravity, light.
    • Geotropism is a plant's response to gravity. Geotropism causes the roots of a plant to grow downwards.
    • Phototropism is a plant's response to light. Phototropism causes a plant's stem to grow towards the light.

    Plant Structure, Transport & Transpiration

    Plant Structure
    • All flowering plants consist of a shoot and a root.
    • The root anchors the plant and absorbs water. It also absorbs minerals that are dissolved in the water.
    • The stem holds the plant towards the sunlight, supports the flower, transports water and minerals up to the leaves and transports food down from the leaves.
    • The leaf makes food by photosynthesis, loses water by transpiration, and exchanges carbon dioxide with oxygen.
    • The flower forms the seeds for reproduction.
    • Xylem Cells transport water and dissolved minerals up through the plant (Hint for remembering: Xylem = Water).
    • Phloem Cells transport food down from the leaves to all the other parts of the plant (Hint for remembering: Phloem = Food)

    Plant Transport
    • Water is absorbed through the roots of a plant.
    • Xylem Cells transport water and dissolved minerals up through the plant (Hint for remembering: Xylem = Water).
    • Phloem Cells transport food down from the leaves to all the other parts of the plant (Hint for remembering: Phloem = Food)

    • Transpiration is the movement of water from the roots to the surface of the plant and the loss of water from the surface of the plant.
    • Water is lost through stomata - tiny pores between cells on the undersurface of a leaf.
    • Transpiration provides water for photosynthesis.
    • Transpiration carries dissolved minerals up the plant.
    • Transpiration also cools cools the plant.
    • Transpiration is highest with bright sunlight, availability of soil water, and a low humidity.

    Plant Reproduction

    Types of Plant Reprodction
    • Sexual Reproduction in plants occurs when a male and female gamete fuse together. It involves two parents. Eg: buttercup.
    • Asexual Reproduction is when new plants are formed from one parent only.

    Parts of a Flower
    • Petal: this attracts insects because of its appealing colour and scent.
    • Sepals protect the flower before it blooms.
    • Carpel: produces female sex cells (eggs).
    • Stamen: produces male sex cells (pollen).

    Parts of the Carpel
    • Stigma: this is the landing place for pollen.
    • Style: this connects the stigma to the ovary.
    • Ovary: produces and contains the ovules which produce the female gamete (egg).

    Parts of the Stamen
    • Anther: this makes the grains of pollen.
    • Filament: this is the stalk of the stamen which supports the carpel.

    Stages of Sexual Reproduction

    1. Pollination
    • This is the transfer of pollen from a stamen to a carpel.
    • Pollen can be transfered by wind or by insects.
    • Wind pollinated flowers have large amounts of pollen, stamens and carpels that hang outside the petals. Eg: grasses.
    • Insect pollinated flowers have a nice smell, brightly coloured petals and nectar to attract insects. the stamens and carpels are often inside the petals. Eg: a rose.

    2. Fertilisation
    • This is the joining of a male and a female gamete to form a zygote.
    • A pollen grain grows a pollen tube through the style and down to the ovary.
    • The male gamete passes through the tube into the ovule and fuses with the egg.
    • The ovule becomes a seed.
    • The ovary then swells to become the fruit and the petals, stamens and petals fall off the flower.

    3. Dispersal
    • This is a method of carrying seeds as far away as possible from a parent plant.
    • This can be done by wind, water, animals or self dispersal.
    • Wind dispersal: the seeds/fruits are light and might have wings or hairs. Example: dandelion, sycamore, grasses.
    • Water dispersal: the seeds/fruit are light and buoyant so they will float. Example: water lily, coconut, alder, duck weed.
    • Animal dispersal: fleshy and tasty, may have hooks. Examples: blackberry, strawberry, raspberry, goose grass (stick weed).
    • Self dispersal: pods that explode to release the seeds. Examples: peas, lupin, wallflowers.

    4. Germination
    • The growth of a new plant from a seed.
    • Conditions needed: water, oxygen, suitable temperature.

    Parts of a Seed (HL only)
    • Testa: protective outer coat
    • Plumule: a baby shoot
    • Radicle: a baby root
    • A food supply

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    Finally something other than English:
    French - Les cartes postales
    -Je m'amuse beacoup - I'm enjoying myself
    -Je nage et je fais de la voile tous les jours - I swim and I go sailing everyday
    -Demain, je vais visiter l'aquarium et voir les poissons et les dauphins - Tomorrow I am going to go and see the aquarium and see the fish and the dolphins.
    -A bientot(has hat over o) - See you soon
    -Bonjour a tous ( grave accent on a) - Hell everyone
    -Nous sommes dans un petit hotel - We are in a small hotel
    -Je fais du surf, je nage, je me bronze - I go surfing, I swim, I'm getting a tan
    -J'adore les crepes bretonnes (hat accent on 1st e of crepes) - I love Breton pancakes
    -Je suis isi a Morlaix en vacances pour une semaine (grave accent on a) - I am here in Morlaix on holidays for a week
    -Je suis ici an vacances chez ma tante - I'm hereon holiday at my aunt's
    -Je fais du shopping et je visite les musees ( acute accent on 1st e of musee) - I go shopping and I go to see the museums
    -Mardi, je vais voir Versailles - On Tuesday, I am going to see Versailles
    -J'adore cette ville - I love this town
    -Nous sommes ici dans les Alpes - We are here in the Alps
    -Nous restons dans un chalet comme sur la carte - We are staying in a chalet just like on the card
    -Il y beauop de neige - There is a lot of snow
    -Nous faisons du ski tour les jours - We go skiing everyday
    -Je faid des progres (grave accent on last e) - I'm making progress
    -Je fais du surf lous les jours - I go surfing everyday
    -Je fais de la voile lous les jours - I go sailing everyday
    -Je fais de la plongee sous la marine tous les jours (acute accent on 1st e of plongee) - I go scuba diving every day
    - Je fais de la planche a voile lous les jours - I go windsurfing everyday
    - Je fais du ski nautique tous les jours - I go water skiing everyday
    - J'adore les sports nautique - I love water sports
    - J'adore la cuisine francaise - I love French food
    - J'adore les fruits de mer - I love sea food
    - surtout - especially
    - J'adore la cuisinr francaise surtout les croques monsieurs - I love the French food espesially the toasted ham and cheese sandwiches
    - Demain je vais visiter la Joaconde au Louvre - Tomorrow I am going to see the Mona Lisa at the Louvre
    - Mardi, je vais visiter le Tour Eiffel - On Tusday, I'm going to see the Eiffel Tower.
    -Mercredi, je vais visiter Nice - On Wednesday, I am going to visit Nice
    - Nous restons dans un camping - We are staying in a campsite
    - Les installations sont bonnes - The facilities are good
    - Nous restons dans une auberge de jeunesse - We are staying in a youth hostel
    - Me voici - Here I am
    - dans un mobile home -in a mobile home
    - dans un chambre d'hote (hat accent on o of hotel) - in a B+B
    - au bord de la mer - at the seaside
    - dans une station balneaire (acuteaccent on 1st e of balneaire) - in a seaside resort
    - dans un station de ski - in a ski resort
    - il y a un terrain de jeux - there is a sport's pitch
    - un aire de jeux - a playground
    - un terain multisport - an all weather pitch
    - Il fait tres beau.C'est la canicule ici (grave accent on e in tres) - The weather is great.There's a heatwave here!

    YOU ARE A LIFE SAVER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Registered Users Posts: 439 ✭✭RML

    Thank you WanderingSoul for the Science notes:). Helped me for my science revision....Well done!!!:D

  • Registered Users Posts: 439 ✭✭RML

    People In History
    George Washington(1732-1799)

    Born in Virginia, he was descended from an english immigrant family. His father was a tobacco grower. George had little formal education. He served as an officer in Army fighting against the French in the Americas.

    He inherited his family estate Mount Vernon, and became a wealthy tobacco grower. Like other planters Washington became alarmed by the repressive actions of the British crown and Parliment.(Quatering Act, Stamp Act.)

    He and other planters called for a boycott of British imports. He was elected to the First and Second Continental Conference and when war broke out he was chosen Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. During the War of Independence he had several military sucesses.(Trenton;Princeton and Yorktown.)
    The Colonists had sucessfully joined together to fight the British and now that they had won Washingto urged them to stay together to form a National Government.

    He played no major role in drawing up the Constitution. This objectivity probably helped him to be chosen as the First American President in 1788 and again in 1792 until 1797. His honesty and sense of prioriety allowed the new Government of a new country survive the taumas of its birth. He retired to his Estate in Virginia and died in 1799.

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    Anybody got anymore french notes for letter,postcard and message?:)

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    No problem RML.

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Formulas, Units & Instruments

    Formulas & Units




    Length, Mass, Time & Temperature

    • 1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres (m)
    • 1 metre (m) = 100 centimetres (cm)
    • 1 centimetre = 10 millimetres (mm)

    Measuring Length
    • Metre stick/ruler (avoid the error of parallax) (nearest mm)
    • Measuring Tape (nearest mm)
    • Callipers (nearest mm)
    • Vernier Callipers (nearest 0.1mm)
    • Opisometer (nearest mm when used with metre stick/ruler)
    • Trundle Wheel (nearest cm)

    • The mass of an object is the amount of matter in it.
    • Electronic balance is used to measure mass.
    • 1 kilogram = 1000 grams

    • 60 seconds = 1 minute
    • 60 minutes = 1 hour
    • Watches / Clocks / Stopwatch / Electronic Timers

    • The temperature of an object is a measure of how hot or cold the object is.
    • Measured in Degrees Celsius (°C) using a thermometer.
    • Body temperature is 37°C.
    • There are 4 types of thermometers: mercury/alcohol thermometers, thermoscan ear thermometer, electronic digital thermometers, temperature sensors.

    Area, Volume, Density & Floatation

    • The area of a shape is the amount of surface enclosed within it’s boundary lines.
    • m2 or cm2
    • Area of a rectangle or square = length x width
    • Area of a disc = ∏ x r x r
    • Area of a triangle = ½ x base x perpendicular height

    • The volume of the object is the amount of space it takes up.
    • m3 or cm3
    • Graduated cylinder / burette / pipette (liquids)
    • Length x width x depth (regular solid)
    • Overflow can (irregular solid)

    • The density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
    • Electronic balance / Graduated cylinder & electronic balance.
    • Density = Mass / Volume
    • kgm−3 or cmg−3


    • An object floats in a liquid if its density is less than the density of the liquid.
    • An object sinks in a liquid if its density is greater than the density of the liquid.

    Speed, Velocity & Acceleration

    • Speed is distance travelled per unit time.
    • Speed = Distance / Time
    • ms-1 or m/s


    • This is speed measured in a particular direction.
    • Velocity is measured in ms-1 or m/s

    • This is the rate of change of velocity.
    • Acceleration is measured in m/s/s or m/s2 or ms-2

  • Registered Users Posts: 2,419 ✭✭✭WanderingSoul

    Force, Work & Power

    • A force is a push or pull that can change the velocity of an object or make it move. Examples of the effects of forces: causing an object to move, speed up, slow down or stop, change direction, change shape.
    • Force is measured in Newtons (N).
    • For every force, an equal but opposite force is exerted.

    Examples of Forces: Weight, Friction & Tension
    • Weight: A force which pulls us towards the centre of the earth.
    • Weight(N) = mass x 10
    • The weight of an object on the moon is less than its weight on earth because the moon has a smaller mass and therefore has less pull on the object.
    • Friction: A force that opposes movement between two surfaces.
    • Friction is needed: between the soles of the shoes of a person and a path, between the tyres of a car and the road, between a ladder and the path.
    • Friction is not wanted: in locks, in engines.
    • Friction is reduced by lubrication.
    • Tension: A force in a string or rope when it is pulled in opposite directions at the same time.

    Hooke’s Law
    • The extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the force stretching it as long as this force does not exceed the elastic limit.

    • Work is done when a force moves an object.
    • Work is measured in Joules.
    • Work (J) = Force (N) X Distance (M).

    • Power is the work done per unit time.
    • Power = work done / time
    • Power is measured in watts.
    • The average power(watts) is the work done(joules) divided by the time taken(seconds).

    • Energy is the ability to do work.
    • The Joule (J) is the unit of energy.

    Moments, Levers & Centre of Gravity

    • The measure of the turning effect of a force is called the moment of the force.
    • Moment of a force = (force) x (perpendicular distance between the force and the fulcrum).
    • Fulcrum: the fixed point or line through which something swings.
    • Moments can be increased by increasing the size or the force or increasing the distance between the force and the fulcrum.

    • A lever is any rigid body that is free to turn around a fixed point or axis called a fulcrum.

    Law of the Lever
    • When a lever is balanced by any number of forces, the sum of the clockwise moments equal to the sum of the anti-clockwise moments.

    Centre of Gravity
    • This is the point in a body where all its weight appears to act.
    • The c.o.g. of a regularly shaped symmetrical objects are at their centre.
    • The position of an object’s centre of gravity (c.o.g.) determines the stability of an object.
    • A low centre of gravity makes an object more stable.
    • A high centre of gravity makes an objects less stable.
    • *A wide base increases stability, a narrow base decreases stability.*
    • A body will topple if a vertical line through its c.o.g. falls outside its base.

    • A body is in stable equilibrium if, when moved slightly its c.o.g. rises.
    • A body is in unstable equilibrium if, when moved slightly its c.o.g. falls.
    • A body is in neutral equilibrium if, when moved slightly its c.o.g. doesn’t move.

  • Registered Users Posts: 439 ✭✭RML

    This is a silly Question: can somebody tell me how to type a fada on e.:D

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  • Registered Users Posts: 365 ✭✭Gentlemanne

    hold down ctrl and alt and then your letter


  • Registered Users Posts: 439 ✭✭RML

    French- Weather Phrases

    Il faisait si beau - it was so fine
    Il faisait soleil tous les jours - It was sunny every day
    Comme il faisait beau! - What great weather it was!
    Le soleil brillait du matin au soir - It was sunny from morning to night
    Pas un nuage dans le ciel! - Never a cloud in the sky!
    [/COLOR]Quel beau temps! - What great weather!
    Heureusement, il n'a pas plu -
    Luckily it did not rain
    Il a plu tous les jours - It
    rained everyday

    What you did on holidays/for your birthday/last weekend

    J'ai fait de la natation/de la voile/de la planche á voile/j'ai peche - I swam/sailed/windsurfed/fished
    J'ai joué au tennis/au volley/au foot/au ping-pong/aux boules - I played tennis/volleyball/football/table tennis/bowling
    Je me suis fait bronzer sur la plage – I sunbathed ont the beach
    J’ai vu des monuments superbes/intéressants – I saw some great/interesting monuments
    J’ai fait des promenades á vélo/en bateau/en voiture/en car – I went on bicycle trips/boat trips/car trips/coach trips
    Je suis allé(e) en ville – I went into town
    Le soir, je suis allé€ au restaurant – In the evenings, I went to the restaurant
    Je suis allé(e) en randonnée dans les montagnes – I went on a hike in the mountains.
    J’ai fait du velo tout terrain – I went mountain biking
    J’ai visite un petit village dans les montagnes avec des petites rues et une riviere - I visted a little village in the mountains with little streets and a river
    J’ai achete un blouson en cuir noir sur le marche – I bought a black leather jacket at the market
    J’ai fete mon anniversaire la semaine derniere – I celebrated my birthday last week
    J’ai fait une fete á lá maison avec tous mes amis – I had a party in the house with all my friends
    Nous avons dansé après avoir mange des pizzas – We danced after eating pizza
    Le week-end dernier, je suis allé(e) au cinema avec mes amis – Last weekend, I went to the cinema with my friends
    J’ai vu le dernier film de Brad Pitt – I saw the latest Brad Pitt film

    Hope this helped!:D

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    I'll have notes up tomorrow peeps anyone got any requests?

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 2,347 ✭✭✭Closed ac

    I'd love some Irish verbs, if you've got any. :)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 8,207 ✭✭✭decisions

    • The war started on the same day as the first Daíl 21 Jan 1919
    • the volunteers were now caller the IRA
    • the IRA attacked 2 policemen in Soloheadbeg co. Tipp
    • this developed into a war Barracks all over the country were attacked
    • The B police left isolated rural areas and moved to cities
    • Collins formed The Squad to kill British spies
    • he also set up a spy network and had informants in the government and police
    • the british government set up a new force called the Black and Tans
    • they wore a mixture of khaki and black poilce uniform
    • they were ruthless and burned down houses and arrested innocent people
    • in retaliation the IRA staged many ambushes at night and hid among the public by day
    • 21 November 1920 Collins orderer the killing of 11 B spies. That afternoon the Black and Tans killed 12 people in Croke Park. This event became known as Bloody Sunday
    • the B gov. were forced to try make a deal with the irish
    • July 1921 a truce was signed and talks concerning the treaty began

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    I'm made of verbs :)

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    Future Tense Verbs:

    Verbs that end in (ín),(ail),(il),(ir) and (is)
    For Example: imir-to play
    oscail-to open
    inis-to tell
    For a verb which ends in (ail),(ir),(il),(ín) we need to make some changes before we can add the endings. It does'nt matter whetherthe verb has one syllable or more, once it's regular(if it ends in [ail],[il],[is],[ir]) we will follow the changes fo this group
    1. The first step we must take is to remove the last vowel or vowels from the verb
    For Example: Imir-Imr
    2. We use the new form of the verb and now we add our endings. If it is a broad verb (a,o,u) then we will add the broad endings. These are
    óidh mé,tú,sé,sí
    óidh síbh/síad

    * If we are asking a question we use án and an úru, if we are using a negative we add and h.
    We judge a verb to be broad or slender after we have taken out the last vowel or vowels.
    For Example: Oscaíl
    Oscloídh mé/tú/sé/sí
    Oscloídh síbh/síad
    If a verb is slender (i,e) we will add the slender endings to the new form of the verb They are
    Eoídh mé/tú/sé/sí
    Eoídh síbh/síad
    * As always a question takes an and an úru and negative takes and h
    For Example: Imreoídh mé/tú/sé/sí
    Imreoídh síbh/síad

    An chéad Reímhniú: * 1 syllable
    a,o,u: Faidh,Faimid
    i,e: Fidh,Fimid
    * More than one syllable with a fáda on last syllable with a on the last syllable
    i,e: fidh,fimid

    An Dara Réimhniú:
    A) All verbs with more than 1 syllable and no fada on last syllable
    Remove aigh,igh add endings: eoidh/eoimid (i,e)
    óidh/óimid (a,o,u)
    B) Verbs ending in (ail),(il),(in),(ir),(is)
    - Remove last vowels
    - Bring in last consanant
    - Decide if-
    a,o,u- oídh,oímid
    i,e- eoídh,eoímid


  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    A monk in an irish monastery:

    My name is Brother Brendan and I live in a monastery called Glendalough. I joined the monastery when I was 16 years old and I was called a novice. The man in charge of the monastery is called the abbot. After 5 years I took vows of poverty,obediance and chastity. I was given a brown habit to wear. The largest building in our monastery is the church. All the monks live in small beehive cells made of stone. We have also built a very tall round tower in our monastery. We are afraid of being attacked by vikings. If an attack takes place we will all go into the tower for protection and bring our precious goods with us.
    I rise before dawn every day of the year and spend the first part of the day praying. My main job in the monastery is that of a scribe. I spend many hours decorating manuscripts, which contain stories from the bible. I make all my own coloured inks and paints and the material I write on is called vellum. The monks in the monastery have many different jobs. Some work on the land while others do all the cooking. One monk carves special high crosses and another uses silver and gold to make beautiful chalices. Some of the monks have left the monastery to go overseas to Europe to spread the Christian religion. These monks are called missionaries but I expect to stay in this monastery until I die and I don't think I'll ever see any of my family again.

  • Closed Accounts Posts: 158 ✭✭schoolboy082

    A monk in an irish monastery:

    My name is Brother Brendan and I live in a monastery called Glendalough. I joined the monastery when I was 16 years old and I was called a novice. The man in charge of the monastery is called the abbot. After 5 years I took vows of poverty,obediance and chastity. I was given a brown habit to wear. The largest building in our monastery is the church. All the monks live in small beehive cells made of stone. We have also built a very tall round tower in our monastery. We are afraid of being attacked by vikings. If an attack takes place we will all go into the tower for protection and bring our precious goods with us.
    I rise before dawn every day of the year and spend the first part of the day praying. My main job in the monastery is that of a scribe. I spend many hours decorating manuscripts, which contain stories from the bible. I make all my own coloured inks and paints and the material I write on is called vellum. The monks in the monastery have many different jobs. Some work on the land while others do all the cooking. One monk carves special high crosses and another uses silver and gold to make beautiful chalices. Some of the monks have left the monastery to go overseas to Europe to spread the Christian religion. These monks are called missionaries but I expect to stay in this monastery until I die and I don't think I'll ever see any of my family again.

    REMEMBER- Short and simple

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  • Closed Accounts Posts: 2,347 ✭✭✭Closed ac

    These notes are on Eircom's Study Hub, but as everyone's not an Eircom customer - I'll post them on here.

    An tÓzón:

    (i) Rinne mé staidéar ar an dán “An tÓzón” le Máire-Áine Nic
    Ghearailt I rith mo chúrsa. Is é téama an dáin seo ná rud éigin a
    chuir fearg ar an bhfile.
    (ii) Sa dán seo úsáideann an file pearsantú mar tá an ciseal ózóin ag
    caint I rith an dáin. Níl an ciseal ózóin sásta ar chor ar bith mar dar
    leis tá an cine daonna i mbaol. Déanann an ciseal ózóin iarracht
    daoine a shaoradh ó rudaí dainséarach-
    “Chun tusa a shaoradh
    O iomarca gréine
    Agus nithe gránna eile”
    Ach dar leis an bhfile nó an ciseal ózóin tá an cine daonna ag lot
    an t-imshaol agus níl daoine sásta aire a thabhairt don domhan
    agus é a choimeád slán. Tugann sé rabhadh agus tá sé soiléir go
    bhfuil sé crosta agus go bhfuil fearg air-
    “Táim ag rá leat
    Aire a thabhairt”
    Agus deir an ciseal ózóin freisin
    “Ná loit rud ar bith
    Nár chruthaigh tú”
    Ba mhaith leis an bhfile go mbeadh meas ag daoine ar an domhan
    agus ansin bheadh seans go mairfeadh an t-imshaol.
    “Glac mo chomhairle
    Agus mairfidh tú”
    Is dán sár-mhaith é seo agus tá sé soiléir go bhfuil fearg ar an
    bhfile mar níl daoine ag tabhairt aire don domhan.