Geography - Moving Plates
The earth's crust is vidided into seven plates:
- The Eurasian Plate
- The African Plate
- The American Plate
- The Nazca Plate
- The Pacific Plate
- The Australian Plate
- The Antarctic Plate
The areas where plates separate, collide, or slide past each other are called plate boundaries.
Plates float on the semi-molten rock of the mantle.
Where plates slide past each other earthquakes may occur.
Where plates collide, fold mountains are formed, and earthquakes may occur.
Where plates separate, volcanic material rises up from the mountain to form volcanic islands, volcanic island and mid-ocean ridges.
Volcanos can also occur in these regions.
When plates collide compression occurs. This causes the earths crust to buckle slowly and arch upwards, forming fold mountains.
Irelands fold mountains, the Macgillycuddy Reeks were formed during the Armorican folding, 250 million years ago.
As they were formed so long ago, they have worn down and are not as high anymore.
The Alps, the Andes, the Rockys and the Himalayas are the highest fold mountains and they were formed during the Alpine folding 35 million years ago.
- Take place most commonly where plates collide or slip past each other. Compression causes the rock beneath the surface to bend and crack.
- When this happens shock waves spread out from the focus, the place where the cracks occur beneath the earths surface.
- The earthquake is usually strongest at the epicentre, the surface area directly above the focus.
- An instrument called a seismograph is used to measure the strenght of earthquakes in the Richter scale.
(stolen image to explain better.)
- Beneath the earths surface is a hot liquid called magma.
-When it reaches the surface, it cools and hardens, then called lava.
- When lava pours onto the earths surface, it can build up into ridges, eg, the mid-Atlantic ridge.
- When lava forces its way violently through a hole called a bent, a volcanic mountain is formed.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge
- A narrow chain of mountains in the Atlantic Ocean is called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
- It runs north-south with some of its peaks rising above the sea to form volcanic islands.
- It lies along a zone where the American and African/Eurasian crustal plates are slowly moving away from each other.
(yet again, stolen.)
I saw this, and planned to write out my notes on An Reoiteoig Mharfach. I left all my books in school, go me. Have some 1st year Geog instead. I wrote these out myself, but theres no saying that my teacher didn't copy them straight from the book.
Economic Activities (Geog)
- In which people obtain natural resources from the land or sea, EG, farming, fishing, forestry and mining.
- Are those in which people process or manufacture products.
ALL manufacturing industries are secondary activities.
- Provide useful services EG, tourism, transport.
- People working in tertiary activities or 3rd level include teachers, truck drivers, shop keepers, hair dressers and travel agents.
- Igneous rocks are formed when hot molten volcanic material cools down and becomes solid on or below the earths surface. Basalt, Granite.
- Sedimentary rocks are formed from the compressed remains of fish, animals, plants and other rock sediments. Limestone, Sandstone.
- Metamorphic rocks are formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed by great heat and pressure. Marble, Quartzite, Gineiss and Schist.
- Is the break down of rock exposed to the forces of weather, eg, frost, rain, sun.
- 2 types of weathering - chemical and mechanical.
- Erosion is the breakdown, transportation and deposition of rock.
- Rivers, sea, ice and wind are agents of erosion.
- Pieces of rock that are broken off by freeze-thaw action are called scree.
- Karst landscape is another name for a limestone area.
- Stalagmites (up) and stalactites (down) are underground features formed by chemical action in limestone areas.
- Clints, grikes and swallow-holes are examples of overground features formed by chemical action in limestone areas.
Random bits of maths
The 3 angles in ▲abc are equal to the 3 in ▲pqr, ie, they are EQUIANGULAR or SIMILAR. But NOT congruent.
To prove they are similar, it is enough to prove that the 2 angles in 1 ▲ = 2 angles in another ▲, as the other pair of angles must be equal.
If two ▲ are similar, then the lenghts of their corresponding sides are in the same proportion.
This states that the square on the hypontenus is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
(h)² = (a)² = (b)²
h² = a² + b²
Where the hypotenus is the longest side in the right angled triangle, ie, the side opposite the right angle.
AREA FORMULAS: (so very important to know these, even just for life.) Pi = 3.14 or 22/7.
Parallelogram: base x perpendicular height
Rectangle: lenght x base
Circle: (pi x radius)²
Sector of a circle: (figure)/360(pi)(radius)²
Triangle: 1/2 base x height
Rectangle: 2(lenght) + 2(base) = 2 (lenght + base)
Square = 4(lenght)
Circle circumference: 2(pi)(radius)
Lenght of an arc: (figure)/360 x 2(pi)(radius)
Cylinder: (CURVED)= 2(pi)(radius)(height), (TOTAL) = 2(pi)(radius)(height) + 2(pi)(radius)²
Hemisphere: (CURVED) = 2(pi)(radius)², (TOTAL) = 2(pi)(radius)²+(pie)(radius)² = 3(pie)(radius)²
Cone: (CURVED) = (pi)(radius)(slant height), (TOTAL) = (pi)(radius)(slant height) + (pi)(radius)², (PYTHAGORAS THEOREM) = (slant height)² = (radius)² + (height)²
Sin (degree) = opposite/hypotenuse
Cos (degree) = adjacent/hypotenuse
Tan (degree) = opposite/adjacent
A handy rhyme:
History - Results of WWI
Results of World War 1
- Early in 1919, the leaders of the victorious Allies met at Paris to put together a peace settlement.
Britain David Lloyd George
France Georges Clemenceau
USA Woodrow Wilson
Italy Vittorio Orlando
- Woodrow Wilson proposed the Fourteen Point Plan
- "self-determination" means that countries are allowed to rule themselves and not be under foreign control.
- The Treaty of Versailles dealt with Germany after WW1 - it was...
*imposed on them
*a treaty of punishment
- The treaty stated that:
*The Polish Corridor (to Poland)
* Alsace-Lorraine (to France)
* All their African colonies
*The provinces of Posen and Silesia (to Poland)
*Saar Coalfields (to France for 15 years)
To prevent future war..
* The German army was limited to 100,000 men
* Could have NO airforce
* NO tanks
* NO submarines
* 24 warships
* were forbidden to station troops in the Rhineland for possible attack to France.
Germany had to pay £6,600 million compensation to the Allies which is equal to approx. €8,380 million today.
THE WAR GUILT CLAUSE
Germany was blamed for starting the war and the Germans were angry at this and did not believe that they deserved this blame.
Germany was forbidden to form an alliance with Austria (Anschluss)
Hope this helps someone!!!
The Merchant of Venice
WHY DOES ANTONIO MAKE SHYLOCK A CHRISTIAN?
Antonio makes Shylock a Christian because it is the perfect revenge. Not only is he taking away a huge part of Shylock's identity, his religion, but he also takes away Shylock's ability to make money, as only Jews can charge interest.
If you are on Shylock's side:
- This is out of spite
- We have lots of evidence in the play to show us that Antonio hates Shylock
- He doesn't even see him as human (a cur - a dog)
If you are on Antonio's side:
- Because he is so kind he wants to save Shylock's soul (Jews are the devil)
WHY DOES ANTONIO HATE SHYLOCK?
- Shylock is a Jew
- He charges interest on loans (usury, against the Christian religion)
- He only cares for himself - selfish
- He is cheap (cares too much about money)
- Lorenzo would have told Antonio about Shylock's treatment of his daughter
WHY DOES SHYLOCK HATE ANTONIO?
- He's a Christian
- Antonio mocks him (Shylocks soliloquy - "and he rails, even where merchants most do congregate.")
- Doesn't charge interest - takes away his business
- Mocks his profits (refer to text)
- Brings down the rate of usance in Venice with her interest free loans
- Shylock believes he helped with Jessicas elopment
- Gave Shylock a bad reputation
- Calls him a cut-throat dog and treats him like one
- Makes his enemies hate him more (fuels my enemies - refer to text)
CHARACTER SKETCH OF SHYLOCK
Shylock comes across as a vengeful person. He hates Antonio for being a Christian as he is a Jew - "I hate him for he is a Christian,".
He also hates him because he takes away Shylocks business by offering interest free loans - "he lends out money gratis and brings down the rate of usance here with us in Venice,".
He is very revengeful and mean in the trial scene. He refuses to take thrice the money (9,000 ducats), instead wanting a pound of Antonios flesh. He refuses to show mercy. In the end, his hatred is the undoing of him as he looses everything.
SUPPORT FOR SHYLOCK
You feel sorry for him for the abuse he gets just because of his religion. When his daughter took his money and left, selling the ring his dead wife Leah gave him.
When he has to convert to Christianity and give up all his possessions.
Antonio physically abuses him - spitting and kicking. "you call me a misbeliever, a cut throat dog and spit upon my Jewish gaberdine."
I did my Junior Cert last year and here's two mini-essays I wrote on the theme of love and the theme of death in the novel Dunmharu ar an Dart. Sorry if there are any typos/grammatical errors.Hopefully this will help somebody anyway
Grá – Love
(i) Rinne mé staidéar ar Dúnmharú ar an Dart le Ruaidhrí O’ Baílle i rith mo chúrsa. Feicimid an t-ábhar ‘grá’ san úrscéal seo.
(ii )Taispeántar an téama ‘grá’ go soléir ó thús an úrscéal. Tá grá le feicéail idir an príomhcarachtéir Niall, agus a bhean Máire.
Ar an gcéad dul síos, i dtosach an scéal, feicimid an grá atá ag Máire do Niall. Is duine grámhar í Máire – cé go bhfuil sí cinnte go bhfuil a fear céile ag dul as a mheabhair nuair a thosaíonn sé ag pacáil chun dul chuig an Ghréig, aontaíonn sí chun dul leis ar aon nós. Áfach, mothaíonn sí buartha faoi a fear dil agus teastaíonn uaithi cabhrú dochtúir a fháil. Tá a croí istigh ann. Go mífhortúnach, íocfaidh sí go daor as a grá - lena saol féin.
Ina theannta sin, tá neart grá ag Niall dá bhean freisin. Ar an drochuair, an am a feiceann muid é seo is soiléire sa leabhar ná an uair a faigheann sí bás. Nuair a sroicheann sé ar ais ó Zurich, agus nuair a feiceann sé Máire ina luí ar an urlár, marbh, tá a chroí briste. Tosaíonn sé ag caoineadh, luíonn sé in aice léi agus tógann sé a lámh ina lámh. Feictear a ghrá di sa nóiméad brónach, rómánsach seo. Ar ndóigh, tagann an taispeántas grá seo i bhfad ró-dhéanach.
Nuair a chuireann muid na pointí thuas le chéile, tá sé éasca dúinn chun an téama ‘grá’ a fheicéail . Is léir go bhfuil téama tábhachtach é sa leabhar ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’.
(i) I studied ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’ by Ruaidhrí O’ Baílle during my course. We see the subject of love in this novel.
(ii)The theme of love is shown clearly from the start of this novel. There is love to be seen between the main character Niall, and his wife Máire.
Firstly, at the start of the story, we see the love that Máire has for Niall. Máire is a loving person – even though she thinks that her husband is gone crazy/out of his mind when he starts packing to go to Greece, she agrees to go with him anyway. However, she does feel worried about her beloved husband and wants to get doctor’s help for him. She cares for him very much. Unfortunately, she will pay dearly for her love for him - with her own life.
Also, Niall loves his wife very much too. Unfortunately, the time we see this most clearly is the hour of her death. When he returns from Zurich and sees Máire lying in the floor dead, his heart is broken. He starts to cry, lies on the floor beside her and takes her hand in his. His love for her is to be seen in this sad, romantic moment. Of course, this display of love comes much too late.
When we put the above points together, it’s easy for us to see the theme of love. It’s clear that love is an important theme in the book ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’.
Bás – Death
(i) Rinne me staidéar ar ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’ le Ruaidhrí O’ Baílle i rith mo chúrsa. Feicimid an t-ábhar ‘ bás’ san úrscéal seo.
(ii) Feictear ‘Bás’ ó thus go deireadh an scéal. Is téama athfhilleadh é sa leabhar.
I dtús báire, i dtosach an scéal, tarlaíonn bás Gerrit ar an Dart. Suíonn sé in aice le Niall agus ceapann Niall go bhfuil sé ina chodladh. Áfach, nuair a thiteann sé ar an dtalamh, is léir go bhfuil an fear bocht marbh! Faigheann muid amach níos déanaí sa scéal gur mharigh a dheartháir, Jan, é. Is eachtra tábhachtach é – tosaíonn an bás seo na eachtraí a athraíodh saol Niall go deo.
Ansin, tagann bás Máire. Maraítear í go brúdiúil ar mhaithe le hairgead Jan. Tagann Niall ar ais ó Zurich go dtí an óstán agus níor creideann sé a shúile nuair a feiceann sé a bhean ina luí ar an urlár, a dhá láimh sínte amach taobh léi is a cuid gruaige fliuch lena fuil. D’íoc Máire go daor as a dílseacht do Niall, d’íoc sí lena beatha féin.
Is é an bás deireanach ná bás Jan. Maraíonn Miriam é ag an ionad dumpála. Ag an am sin, bhí Jan ar tí Niall a mharú – cúpla soicind eile agus bheadh Niall marbh freisin. Níl splanc trua ag an léitheoir do Jan nuair a maraítear é mar ba drochfear ceart é. Is é an t-aon bás san úrscéal a chuireann áthas orainn.
Tá sé soléir go bhfuil téama tábhachtach é ‘Bás’ agus is é ceann amháin de na príomhtéamaí sa leabhar ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’.
(i) I studied ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’ by Ruaidhrí O’ Baílle during my course. We see the subject of ‘death’ in this novel.
(ii) The theme of ‘death is seen from the start to the end of the story. It is a recurring theme in the book.
First of all, at the beginnning of the story, Gerrit’s death happens on the Dart. He sits next to Niall and Niall thinks that he is asleep. However, when he falls on the ground, it’s clear that the poor man is dead! We find out later in the story that his brother, Jan, killed him. This is an important event – this death begins the events that would change Niall’s life forever.
Then comes Máire’s death. She is killed brutally for the sake of Jan’s money. Niall comes back from Zurich to the hotel and he doesn’t believe his eyes when he sees his wife lying on the floor, her two hands stretched out beside her and her hair wet with her blood. Máire paid dearly for her love for Niall, she paid with her own life.
The last death in the story is Jan’s death. Miriam kills him at the dump. At that time, Jan had been about to kill Niall – another couple of seconds and Niall would have been dead too. The reader has not a bit of pity for Jan when he is killed because he was a bad man through and through. It is the one death in the novel that pleases us.
It’s clear that death is an important theme and is one of the main themes in the book ‘Dúnmharú ar an Dart’.
This thread is seriously useful. I just spent the last half hour or so reading through the posts and picking out the most useful ones for study this weekend. It'll be a huge help for Mocks in five weeks or so. Thanks :') I don't have any notes to post atm, but I'll try figure something useful to share.
But the one I use myself:
"Senior Cup Team" for order purposes, then "Oh hell, another hour of algebra" for the actual fractions. That's the one that always stuck with me.