we do not really need three threads on psychopaths in the space of less then a week so please do not make duplicate threads of the same topic, thank you Vangelis.
iv already said i disagree with the term alone but i will leave this thread open so long as it remains objective.
also the context in which the term psychopath is often used is usually in a negative or ignorant context
You disagree? I bet you don't know a thing about psychopathy. Psychopathy is a fact, it's not an opinion. Disagreeing doesn't help. And it won't make Dr Robert Hare change his mind. To you it is a term full of shame and derogation I suppose. Well, it is not. It's a clinical term for a person who displays an extreme anti-social behaviour.
That doesn't make it wise to lock a thread. Keeping society out of debate will make no one more informed about what psychopathy really is and will leave people dumb-founded with prejudice and ignorance of how to behave in the presence of psychopaths. It's important to spread knowledge about it.
Do you work with psychopaths? Then your reaction seems extremely bizarre.
If a psychopath is named a psychopath he is offended, yes, but they will remain psychopaths. Being careful not to aggrevate them is a good idea, yes, but their mood is independent of others. They do what they like to do.
And if you doubt Dr Hare's observations, I'm embarrassed on your behalf. He is a world expert on psychopathy and has interviewed psychopaths and researched their behaviour for 30 years. There you've got your science, miss.
And let me tell you something. If you offended a client of yours who was a psychopath, he would want revenge and probably make your life a living hell. Depending on his/her nature of course. All that triggered by the offense you would have cause by naming him/her a psychopath.
American Psychiatric AssociationIn 1973, the voted to remove homosexuality from their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
Subsequently, a new diagnosis, "ego-dystonic homosexuality," was created for the DSM's third edition in 1980. This meant someone who had "distress" about their sexual orientation.
. Ego dystonic homosexuality was indicated by: (1) a persistent lack of heterosexual arousal, which the patient experienced as interfering with initiation or maintenance of wanted heterosexual relationships, and (2) persistent distress from a sustained pattern of unwanted homosexual arousal.Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D. writes:
"The new diagnostic category, however, was criticized professionally on numerous grounds. It was viewed by many as a political compromise to appease those psychiatrists – mainly psychoanalysts – who still considered homosexuality a pathology. Others questioned the appropriateness of having a separate diagnosis that described the content of an individual's dysphoria. They argued that the psychological problems related to ego-dystonic homosexuality could be treated as well by other general diagnostic categories, and that the existence of the diagnosis perpetuated antigay stigma."
In 1986, the diagnosis was removed entirely from the DSM. The only vestige of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" in the revised DSM-III occurred under "Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified," which included persistent and marked distress about one's sexual orientation.
The DSM 4th Edition (DSM-IV) was published in 1994, followed in 2000 by the DSM IV, Text Revision, or DSM-IV-TR. These editions include "transvestic fetishism" and "gender identity disorder" (GID) as disorders.
As Katherine Wilson, Ph.D. notes:
"Recent revisions of the DSM have made these diagnostic categories increasingly ambiguous, conflicted and overinclusive... The result is that a widening segment of gender non-conforming youth and adults are potentially subject to diagnosis of psychosexual disorder, stigma and loss of civil liberty."
The APA voted in 1987 to "urge its members not to use the '302.0 Homosexuality' diagnosis in the current ICD-9-CM or the '302.00 Ego-dystonic homosexuality' diagnosis in the current DSM-III or future editions of either document" (APA, 1987). They took this action because, although the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality from the DSM-IIIR, the revised manual was not expected to be published immediately. Furthermore, at the time, another widely used listing of mental disorders – the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases 9th edition (ICD-9) – still included homosexuality as a diagnosis. In 1992, the WHO removed homosexuality from the ICD-10.
The history of Occupational Therapy(OT) had it's origin in the 1700's during Europe's "Age of Enlightenment". At this time, radical new ideas were emerging for the infirm and mentally ill. Normally, they were excluded from work activities and were treated like criminals and locked in prisons. During this new era concern was given to their mental well being. This dramatic change can be attributed to two very different men, Phillipe Pinel, a French physician, scholar and natural philosopher and William Tuke, an English Quaker.
Phillipe Pinel was of the belief that morally treating the mentally ill meant treating their emotions. The doctrine of Moral Treatment utilized occupation; man's goal directed use of time, interests, energy , and attention; in combination with purposeful daily activity for treatment. Music and various forms of literature, physical exercise and work were used as a method to release the mind from emotional stress and thereby improve the individual's activities of daily living.
William Tuke and his family were also redefining the direction of mental health care. Because Tuke was appalled at the inhumane treatment and the deplorable conditions which existed in the public insane asylums, he developed several principles for the moral treatment of this population. The main approach use was that of the moral concepts of kindness and consideration. He also encompassed the concept of religion which created an atmosphere of family life. Occupations and purposeful activities were prescribed in order to minimize the patient's disorder.
The progression of moral treatment continued into the 1900's as Sir William Ellis and his wife came to be in charge of England's county asylums. This community became a family atmosphere and the men and women both were encouraged to enhance their previous trades or establish new ones in order to support purposeful activity. Sir and Lady Ellis were able to prove that the mentally ill were not dangerous with tools, and were far less dangerous than other unoccupied individuals. The Ellis' were also responsible for developing the idea of an "after care" house, very similar to the halfway houses of today. These places functioned as stepping-stones from total care to limited assistance living care.
The Progressive Era of the twentieth century in the United States initially was not progressive at all for the mental health field. The moral treatment philosophy had waned during the civil war and nearly disappeared with no one to carry on the philosophy. A lack of concern and lack of moral treatment was ushered in with the use of sterilization of the "mental defectives", the insitutionalized insane. Fortunately, in the early 1900's, Susan Tracy, a nurse, employed occupation for mentally ill patients. She also initiated activity instruction to student nurses and coined the term "Occupational Nurse" for this specialty.
Other professionals involved in the rebirth of OT include Eleanor Slagle, a partially trained social worker; George Edward Barton, a disabled architect; Adolph Meyer, a psychiatrist; and William Dunton, a psychiatrist. These professionals, along with Susan Tracy, formed the backbone of modern occupational therapy and ensured acceptance as a medical entity with the establishment of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy leading to the present day American Occupational Therapy Association.
Occupational therapy has continued to develop from a deeply-rooted belief in the critical importance of "doing"; of active enjoyment in purposeful activity as a catalyst in the development of self, fulfillment in social membership, social efficacy and self-actualization