A fulacht fiadh (Irish pronunciation: [ˈfˠʊl̪ˠəxt̪ˠ ˈfʲiːə]; Irish: fulacht fiadh or fulacht fian; plural: fulachtaí fia or, in older texts, fulachta fiadh) is a type of archaeological site found in Ireland. In England, Scotland, Wales and the Isle of Man they are known as burnt mounds. They commonly survive as a low horseshoe-shaped mound of charcoal-enriched soil and heat shattered stone with a slight depression at its centre showing the position of the pit.
Radiocarbon dating indicates that the majority of fulachtaí fiadh were constructed during the mid to late Bronze Age (c.1500- c. 500 BC), though some Neolithic examples are known. However, some were still in use up to medieval times. They are the most common archaeological sites in Ireland, with over 4,500 recorded examples, of which some 2,000 are found in County Cork. Permanent structures are rarely found near to fulachtaí fiadh, but small hut sites are common and it is unknown whether early sites were built by permanent settlements or nomadic hunters.
Function is still being debated.
|The pokhodnaya banya (походная баня) or "hiking banya," is popular among the Russian military, mountaineers and people who travel for extended periods in harsh environments. It consists of a stone oven set up in a small makeshift tent. Hiking banyas are usually made near a lakeshore or riverbank where many big, round stones are available to build the banya's oven and there is plenty of cool water available for bathing. Large stones are made into a dome-shaped circular oven, one to four meters in diameter and a half to one meter in height so that there is space left on the inside to make a large fire. Firewood is burned for several hours in this improvised stove until the stones on the surface of the pile become so hot that water poured on them turns into steam. Around the pile, a space is tarped to form a small tent and the banya is ready when it becomes very hot inside and there is a lot of steam. Fresh veniks can be cut from nearby birch or oak trees and bathers can take turns cooling off in the ice-cold mountain water.|
Instead of plastic you can use leather or branches.
The way the steam is created by overheating a pile of stones will create a large quantities of burned stone.
The water is kept inside of the the wood or stone laid pit and was scooped and poured over the hot stones to produce steam...
This is one in use
These things are still used all over Russia.
Use this search to get Russian links to banjas:
Question is How come they survived in Russia but not in Ireland? And where is the origin?
The Finnish sauna (pronounced 'Sow-na') is a substantial part of Finnish culture. There are five million inhabitants and over two million saunas in Finland - an average of one per household. For Finnish people the sauna is a place to relax with friends and family, and a place for physical and mental relaxation as well. Finns think of saunas not as a luxury, but as a necessity. Before the rise of public health care and nursery facilities, almost all Finnish mothers gave birth in saunas.
The sauna in Finland is an old phenomenon and is difficult to trace its roots. Bath houses were recorded in Europe during the same time period, but Finnish bathing habits were poorly documented until the 16th century. Because of the years of habitation and variant rule by Russia and Sweden, it is possible that the sauna custom evolved from them. It was during the Reformation in Scandinavia that the popularity of saunas expanded to other countries because the European bath houses were being destroyed. Hundreds[when?] of years ago, when bathing was something to be done only rarely or never at all, Finns were cleaning themselves in saunas at least once a week.
One reason the sauna culture has always flourished in Finland has been because of the versatility of the sauna. When people were moving, the first thing they did was build a sauna. You could live in it, make food in the stove, take care of your personal hygiene, and, most importantly, give birth in an almost sterile environment. Unlike many other, more densely populated places in Europe, the availability of wood needed to build and warm the sauna has never been an issue. Another reason for its popularity is that in such a cold climate, the sauna allows people warmth for at least a short period of time. However, it is just as popular in the summer as in the winter.
So Finish saunas are probably of Russian origin.
|The oldest known saunas were Finnish, made from pits dug in a slope in the ground and primarily used as dwellings in winter.|
And all the other saunas in Scandinavia are of Finish origin. Meaning all saunas are of Russian origin....
Where did Irish fulacht fiadh then come from? Brought with invading solders from the north east? Like south Baltic? In Bronze age?
What is interesting is that word "banja" in Serbian means Bath and "banjati se" means to wash.
|Banya or banja (Russian: баня [ˈbanʲə]; Macedonian: бања [ˈbaɲa]; Serbian: бања [ˈbâɲa]) can refer to a number of types of steam baths popular in Eastern Europe. In Russia, it refers to a particular local type of sauna. In the Republic of Macedonia and Serbia it is a mineral water spa, as, for example, the spa resorts such as Kežovica (Macedonia), and Vrnjačka Banja and Sokobanja (Serbia). Variants of this word in other Slavic languages usually refer to a bathtub (Slovene: banja), bathroom (Bulgarian: баня) and bathing in general.|
What is Very interesting is etymology of word banja:
|From Proto-Slavic *banja.|
|From Vulgar Latin *bānea, *bānja, balnia, from Latin balneum, balineum (“bath, bathing place”).|
How can Vulgar Latin bānea come from balnia and balneum is a mystery. Also does anyone has any example of Vulgar Latin "bānea"?
|From Ancient Greek βαλανεῖον (balaneîon).|
(5th BC Attic): IPA: /balané͜e.on/
Etymology uncertain. Attempts have been made to connect with βάλανος (balanos, “acorn”), but are semantically unconvincing. Probably Pre-Greek.
So the root for Slavic banja is Vulgar Latin bānea which has root in Lating balneum which has root in Old Greek balaneîon which has no etymology in Greek.
Let me try to come up with etymology:
In Serbian Bel, Beli means white.
In Serbian Ban, Van means white. Svanuti = S Van uti = with white (light) be = to dawn, to get bright, to get white. Svanuće = Dawn
In Serbian nos means to carry.
In Celtic mythology, Bel, Belenos (also Belenus) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul, and Celtic areas of Austria, Britain and Spain. He is particularly associated with Cornwall, West Cornwall being anciently called Belerion, the place of Bel. He was the Celtic sun god and had shrines from Aquileia on the Adriatic to Kirkby Lonsdale in England.
The etymology of the name is unclear. Suggestions include "shining one," "the bright one" and "henbane god".
Belenos is bel + nos = white (light) + carry = bringer of light
In Irish bàn means white, Old Irish bán; Indo-European root bha@-, shine; Greek @Gfanós ( @G a long), bright; Sanskrit bhânù, light; further away is English bale (bale-fire).
"Banjati se" means to wash in Serbian. But in Irish it would mean to make your self white again which is the purpose of washing. This means the same as "beliti se" - to make yourself white, clean from dirt.
So "Greek" balaneîon literally means: a place where you make yourself "bel", white, clean...
"Vulgar Latin" bānea literally means: a place where you make yourself "ban", white, clean...
The archetypal ancestor of the Serbs is called Van, Ban and he is represented as white wolf. Remember B and V are interchangeable.
Slavic mythology mentions a deity which is in indissolubly connected with the wolf. That deity is Dažbog, God of the Sun and the son of Svarog, namely one of the group of Gods called Svarožić. Dažbog, like so many other deities, is theriomorphous and his animal form is a white, lame wolf...
There is another myth connected to the wolf, and this myth speaks of Dažbog's voyage to the Underworld, and his marriage to Morana, the Slavic Goddess of death. Namely, Morana and Dažbog had a son named Van, blinded by his mother, as a vengeance to Dažbog whom she had stopped loving. Van was thrown into a pit, but is rescued by Radgost, who takes him to Živa who heals his eyesight with the water of life. As punishment, Dažbog throws Morana onto a stake and, as she burns, she curses Van, turning him into a wolf. Van’s sister Poljelja learns that she can save her brother if she keeps silent for seven years – when this time passes, he will revert to his human form. Even though she goes through gruelling trials, Poljelja keeps silent even when she’s put on a stake, however, at that very moment, the seven years pass and Van turns back into a human, thus saving his sister from a certain death. Nevertheless, Van loses his divine powers and, as such, becomes a human being and, according to the legend, the ancestor of the Serbian people. We shall talk more about the Serbian cult of the wolf later, first we should end this depiction of the wolf’s role in Slavic mythology with a review of the non traditional systematization of Slavic paganism, the so-called Slavic Vedism of Yuri Miroljubov and Alexander Asov, and the place the wolf holds in this system...
Book of Veles says:
|Ne zaboravljamo naše običaje: peremo svoja tela i umivamo svoj duh u čistoj vodi živoj.|
Bathing was a religious act for Slavs Arians closely connected with Sun worship.
|Other popular names for this day are “bonfire” (Polish: sobótka), a name possibly derived from the day on which these festivities used to be held (sobota is Polish for “Saturday”) or from the ritual name given St. John’s fires, and “kupała”, which is probably derived from a word for ritual bathing. The traditions associated with this night go back to pagan times and are known all over Europe. St. John’s Eve falls just after the summer solstice and climaxes when the sun reaches its zenith to signify the longest day and shortest night. Strange things were believed to have occurred at that precise moment and strange powers were attributed to fire, water and plants. That evening, people would stray far from home and cultivated fields to gather around fires (where suitable kinds of trees were being burned), by lakes, along rivers or on hills. Herbs like artemisia and burdock would be thrown onto the fire in the belief that they had cleansing powers. Girls would dance around the fires singing love songs. Boys, and sometimes girls, would jump through the fire. Water also acquired peculiar properties on that night. It was said to “blossom” and that only St. John could make it safe to bathe in rivers and lakes. 24 June has been a critical day ever since. It used to be believed that bathing on Ivan Kupala Day washed away evil forces, endued with health and strength, and ensured good luck. Bodies, especially those of young people, became healthier and more beautiful and alluring. Such a bath guaranteed requited love, successful marriage and happy parenthood. Marriageable girls wove garlands (a symbol of virginity) of field and garden flowers, tied them to slats to which they fixed candles, and then floated them in the water and observed closely. Floating evenly or being fished out by a boy they liked was a much desired omen as it signified love, impending marriage and long life. Becoming entangled in vegetation, however, meant remaining unmarried for at least another year. The worst possible omen was the candle going out or the garland sinking or capsizing. This foreshadowed trouble in love and life, unrequited love, spinsterhood, sadness and single-handedly having to raise a child born out of wedlock. Several customs associated with this day still survive. The magical aspect might have disappeared but the belief that bathing is only possible after St. John’s day is still with us.|
So what do you think, who invented Saunas and Baths in general, who gave them their name, who did Greeks got them from??? Is it possible that they came from Ireland and went to South Baltic first and then Balkans in Early Bronze age? Or was it the other way round?