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Gramadach + Téarmaíocht Úsáideach

Comments

  • #2


    Aidiachtaí agus Dathanna

    Dubh - black
    Gorm - blue
    Bán - white
    Buí - yellow
    Airgid - silver
    Óir/órga - golden
    Donn - brown
    Flannbhuí/oráiste - orange
    Dearg - red
    Rua - red (nature)
    Uaine/glas - green
    Bándearg - pink
    Corcra - purple
    Liath - grey
    Dúghorm - navy
    Béas - beige
    Plúiríneach - indigo
    Corcarghorm/sailchuachach - violet

    Beag - small
    Mór - big
    Ard - tall/high
    Íseal - short/low
    Fada - long
    Gearr - short
    Maith - good
    Olc - bad
    Fíor - true
    Bréagach - false
    Beo - alive
    Marbh - dead
    Leathan - broad/wide
    Caol - slender/narrow
    Ramhar - fat
    Tanaí - thin
    Fuar - cold
    Te - hot
    Geal - bright/light
    Dorcha - dark
    Trom - heavy
    Éadrom - light
    Mín - smooth
    Garbh - rough
    Saibhir - rich
    Daibhir/Bocht - poor
    Saor - cheap/free
    Daor - dear/expensive
    Searbh - bitter
    Milis - sweet
    Fliuch - wet
    Tirim - dry
    Sean - old
    Nua - new
    Óg - young
    Aosta - old
    Úr - fresh
    Leamh - stale
    Díreach - straight
    Cam - crooked/bent
    Deas - nice
    Gránna - nasty


  • #2


    Mothúcháin

    Sásta - happy
    Fearg - anger
    Feargach - angry
    Imní - worry
    Imníoch - worried
    Buartha - worried
    Uaigneas - loneliness
    Uaigneach - lonely
    Aiféala - regret
    Díomá - disappointment
    Grá - love
    Díoltas - revenge
    Díoltasach - vengenful/vindictive
    Trua - pity
    Bá - sympathy
    Comhbhá - sympathy
    Ionbhá - empathy
    Éad/Formad - jealousy/envy
    Saint - greed
    Naimhdeas - enmity
    Leisciúil - lazy
    Leisciúileacht - laziness
    Fuinniúil - energetic
    Spreagtha - inspired/encouraged
    Eagla - fear
    Eaglach - afraid
    Bród - pride
    Bródúil - proud
    Dóchas - hope
    Dóchasach - hopeful
    Éadóchas - despair
    Éadóchasach - hopeless/despairing
    Meas - respect
    Tuirse - tiredness
    Tuirseach - tired
    Traochta - exhausted
    Tart - thirst
    Ocras - hunger
    Ocrasach - hungry
    Buíoch - thankful
    Amhrasach - doubtful
    Geallgháireach - jolly/happy/cheerful
    Craiceáilte - crazy
    Nimhneach - spiteful
    Go hiontach - marvelous
    Náire - shame/embarrassment
    Náireach - shameful/embarrassed
    Uafás - terror/horror
    Fuath - hatred
    Folláin/Sláintiúil - healthy
    Gliondar - delight
    Iontas - surprise/wonder
    Ámharach - lucky
    Díobháileach - mischievous
    Suarach - mean/base/contemptible
    Cumha - homesick/loneliness/nostalgia
    Tinn - sick
    Gruama - sombre/gloomy/cheerless


  • #2


    Tréithe Pearsanta

    Gránna - nasty
    Cabhrach - helpful
    Cliste - clever
    Glic - sly
    Amaideach - foolish
    Grámhar - loving
    Greannmhar - funny
    Feargach - angry
    Foighneach - patient
    Ámharach - lucky
    Díobháileach - mischievous
    Suarach - mean/base/contemptible
    Cumhach - wistful/homesick/nostalgic
    Cáiliúil - famous
    Áthasach - happy
    Brónach - sad
    Éadmhar - jealous
    Measúil - esteemed/respected
    Tuisceanach - understanding
    Eagnaí/críona - wise
    Muiníneach - confident/trusting
    Misniúil - courageous
    Cróga - brave
    Cladhartha - cowardly
    Dathúil - handsome
    Álainn - beautiful
    Gleoite - pretty/cute
    Mealltach - attractive
    Socair/Suaimhneach - calm
    Uaillmhianach - ambitious
    Dearmadach - forgetful/oblivious
    Cruthaitheach - creative
    Fiosrach - curious/nosy
    Neamhspleách - independent
    Múinte/Béasach - polite
    Dícheallach/Díograiseach - diligent
    Freagrach - responsible
    Láidir - strong
    Lag - weak
    Ionsaitheach - aggressive
    Sotalach - arrogant
    Leadránach - boring
    Mícmhacánta - dis-honest
    Neirbhíseach - nervous
    Neamhthrócaireach - ruthless/merciless
    Cúthail - shy
    Leitheadach - vain/conceited


  • #2


    Téamaí agus Ábhair

    Tallann - talent
    Claidhreacht - villainy/roguery
    Cineáltas - kindness
    Spórt - sport
    Saol na tuaithe - life in the countryside
    Saol na cathrach - city life
    Timpiste - an accident
    Tragóid - tragedy
    Tubaiste - disaster
    An Óige - youth
    An tSeanaois - old age
    Bullaíocht - bullying
    Saol na Scoile - school life
    An Dúlra - nature
    An Timpeallacht - the environment
    Gadaíocht/Gadaithe - theft/thieves
    Coiriúlacht - crime
    An Geilleagar - the economy
    Cáil - fame
    Taisteal - travel
    Obair - work
    Cúrsaí Polaitíochta - politics
    Imirce - emigration
    Inimirce - immigration
    Foréigean - violence
    Dúnmharú - murder
    Alcól - alcohol
    Drugaí - drugs
    Na Meáin - the media
    Líonraí Soisialta - social networks
    Leochailleacht na Beatha - the fragility of life
    Tinneas - illness
    Cruálacht - cruelty
    Grá tuismitheora - a parent's love
    Saoirse - freedom
    Géibheann - captivity
    Colscaradh - separation/divorce
    Céiliúradh - celebration
    Bás - death
    Caidrimh - relationships
    Cairdeas - friendship
    An Ghaeltacht
    An Ghaeilge - the Irish language
    Féiniúlacht - identity
    Teacht in inmhe - reaching maturity
    Gortú - injury
    Ainmhithe - animals
    Tréigean - abandonment/desertion
    Éalú - escaping/fleeing
    Oideachas - education
    Éadaí - clothes
    Faisean - fashion
    Smidiú - makeup
    Ceol - music
    Traidisiún - tradition
    Oidhreacht - heritage
    Caitheamh aimsire - hobbies/pastimes
    Slite beatha - jobs
    Cúrsaí reatha - current affairs
    Féilte - festivals
    An aimsir - the weather
    Imeachtaí sóisialta - social events
    Bádóireacht - boating
    Seoltóireacht - sailing
    Iascaireacht - fishing
    Feirmeoireacht/Garraíodóireacht - farming


  • #2


    Nathanna éagsúla/Cur in iúl

    Ceapaim - I think
    Measaim - I think/judge
    Creidim - I believe
    Deirim - I say
    Dearbhaím - I declare
    Áirím - I reckon
    Geallaim + do - I promise
    Guím ar - I pray/implore
    Tugaim an leabhar - I swear
    Aontaím - I agree
    Molaim - I suggest/recommend
    Is cuimhin liom - I remember
    Ag smaoineamh ar - thinking about
    Ag insint bréige - telling a lie
    Bréad + inis - to tell a lie
    Easaontaím - I disagree
    Ní aontaím - I do not agree
    Go huile is go hiomlán - absolutely, totally
    Ar chor ar bith - at all
    Ar aon nós - anyway
    Ar aon chaoi - anyway
    Pé scéal é - anyway
    Is baolach - there's a danger/it's likely
    Is dócha/dóigh - It seems likely
    Pé/Cibé - whatever/whichever
    Dearcadh - outlook/perspective
    Dearfach - positive
    Diúltach - negative
    I bhfábhar/Ar son - in favour/for
    I gcoinne/in aghaidh/in éadan - against
    Bréagnú - to counter/disprove
    Cruthaigh/cruthú - to prove
    Cinnte dearfa - definitely
    B'fhéidir - maybe
    Caithfear a admháil - it must be admitted
    Ní féidir a shéanadh - it cannot be denied
    D'fhéadfaí a rá - it could be said
    Níl mé cinnte - I'm not sure
    Tá a fhios agam - I know
    Níl a fhios agam - I don't know
    Mar gheall ar - because of
    Toisc - because
    Óir - for
    Murach - if not for
    In ainneoin - despite
    I mo thuairim - in my opinion
    I mo bharúil - in my opinion
    Dealraíonn sé - it seems
    Go bhfios dom - as far as I know
    Is ar éigean - hardly
    Is cosúil - probably
    Tuairim is - approximately
    Amhrasach - doubtful
    Tá súil agam - I hope
    Ciallaíonn sé - it means/implies
    Agus/Is araile - et cetera
    srl - etc.


  • #2


    Briathra (samplaí - ainm briathartha + "ag")

    Ag rince - dancing
    Ag brú - pushing
    Ag tarraingt - pulling
    Ag déanamh - doing
    Ag iarraidh - trying
    Ag feabhsú - improving
    Ag meath - declining/withering
    Ag gortú - hurting/injuring
    Ag éalú - escaping/fleeing
    Ag troid - fighting
    Ag traenáil - training
    Ag cleachtadh - practising
    Ag ullmhú - preparing
    Ag buachan - winning
    Ag cailleadh - losing
    Ag casadh - turning
    Ag léim - jumping
    Ag tabhairt - giving
    Ag éisteacht + le - listening to
    Ag féachaint + ar - watching
    Ag breathnú + ar - watching/observing
    Ag smaoineamh ar - thinking about
    Ag roghnú - choosing/selecting
    Ag séideadh - blowing
    Ag bailiú - collecting/gathering
    Ag imeacht - leaving
    Ag dul - going
    Ag teacht - coming
    Ag imirt - playing (sports, games)
    Ag seinm - playing (musical instruments)
    Ag casadh - playing (music/CDs/records/MP3, etc)
    Ag béicíl - screaming/cheering
    Ag gearán - complaining
    Ag leanúint - continuing/following
    Ag coimeád - keeping
    Ag ionsaí - attacking
    Ag cosaint - defending
    Ag ligint - letting
    Ag scaoileadh - releasing/shooting
    Ag rith - running
    Ag snámh - swimming
    Ag rothaíocht - cycling
    Ag caitheamh - throwing/wearing/spending/smoking
    Ag breith - catching
    Ag preabadh - bouncing
    Ag greamú - grabbing/tackling/sticking
    Ag bualadh - hitting/striking
    Ag tógáil - taking/building
    Ag dúnadh - closing
    Ag oscailt - opening
    Ag ithe - eating
    Ag ól - drinking
    Ag rá - saying
    Ag insint - telling
    Ag fáil - finding/getting
    Ag líonadh - filling
    Ag scríobh - writing
    Ag léamh - reading
    Ag glanadh - cleaning
    Ag eagrú - organising
    Ag díol - selling
    Ag gearradh - cutting
    Ag baint - taking off
    Ag briseadh - breaking
    Ag fágáil - leaving
    Ag fanacht - staying/waiting
    Ag ní - washing
    Ag scuabadh - brushing
    Ag cíoradh - combing
    Ag dó - burning
    Ag ceannach - buying
    Ag tosú - starting
    Ag críochnú - finishing
    Ag dúiseacht - waking
    Ag éirí - getting up/becoming
    Ag deisiú - mending/fixing
    Ag múineadh - teaching
    Ag foghlaim - learning
    Ag ceangal - tying
    Ag mothú - feeling
    Ag brath - depending
    Ag glacadh - taking/accepting
    Ag aontú - agreeing
    Ag diúltú - refusing
    Ag moladh - suggesting/praising
    Ag cruthú - creating/proving
    Ag guí + ar - praying/imploring
    Ag gealladh - promising


  • #2


    Forainmneacha Réamhfhoclaca

    Ar dtús, na Réamhfhocail Shimplí.

    - Ar ("on")
    - Ag ("at", possession)
    - As ("out of")
    - Chuig ("to")
    - Do ("to")
    - De ("off of")
    - Faoi ("under", "about")
    - I ("in")
    - Idir ("between", "among")
    - Ionsar ("towards")
    - Le ("with")
    - Ó ("from")
    - Roimh ("in front of", "before")
    - Thar ("over", "above")

    Na Réamhfhocail Shimplí leis an Alt

    Ar an (+ urú)
    Ag an (+ urú)
    As an (+ urú)
    Chuig an (+ urú)
    Don (+ séimhiú)
    Den (+ séimhiú)
    Faoin (+ urú)
    Sa (+ séimhiú)
    Ionsar an (+ urú)
    Leis an (+ urú)
    Ón (+ urú)
    Roimh an (+ urú)
    Thar an (+ urú)

    Ar
    Orm
    Ort
    Air
    Uirthi
    Orainn
    Oraibh
    Orthu

    Ag
    Agam
    Agat
    Aige
    Aici
    Againn
    Agaibh
    Acu

    As
    Asam
    Asat
    As
    Aisti
    Asainn
    Asaibh
    Astu

    Chuig
    Chugam
    Chugat
    Chuige
    Chuici
    Chugainn
    Chugaibh
    Chucu

    Do
    Dom
    Duit

    Di
    Dúinn
    Daoibh
    Dóibh

    De
    Díom
    Díot
    De
    Di
    Dínn
    Díbh
    Díobh

    Faoi
    Fúm
    Fút
    Faoi
    Fúithi
    Fúinn
    Fúibh
    Fúthu

    I
    Ionam
    Ionat
    Ann
    Inti
    Ionainn
    Ionaibh
    Iontu

    Idir
    Idir mé
    Idir tú
    Idir sé
    Idir sí
    Eadrainn
    Eadraibh
    Eatarthu

    Ionsar
    Ionsorm
    Ionsort
    Ionsair
    Ionsuirthi
    Ionsorainn
    Ionsoraibh
    Ionsorthu

    Le
    Liom
    Leat
    Leis
    Léi
    Linn
    Libh
    Leo

    Ó
    Uaim
    Uait
    Uaidh
    Uaithi
    Uainn
    Uaibh
    Uathu

    Roimh
    Romham
    Romhat
    Roimhe
    Roimpi
    Romhainn
    Romhaibh
    Rompu

    Thar
    Tharam
    Tharat
    Thairis
    Thairsti
    Tharainn
    Tharaibh
    Tharstu


  • #2


    Logainmneacha agus Ceantair Ghaeltachta

    Na Cúigí
    Connacht - Connaught
    Laighean - Leinster
    Mumhan - Munster
    Uladh - Ulster

    Na Contaetha
    Áth Cliath - Dublin
    Ceatharlach - Carlow
    Cill Chainnigh - Kilkenny
    Cill Dara - Kildare
    Cill Mhantáin - Wicklow
    An Iarmhí - Westmeath
    Laois - Laois
    Loch Garman - Wexford
    An Longfort - Longford
    An Mhí - Meath
    Uíbh Fhailí - Offaly
    Ciarraí - Kerry
    An Clár - Clare
    Corcaigh - Cork
    Luimneach - Limerick
    Port Láirge - Waterford
    Tiobraid Árann - Tipperary
    Gaillimh - Galway
    Liatroim - Leitrim
    Maigh Eo - Mayo
    Ros Comáin - Roscommon
    Sligeach - Sligo
    Aontraim - Antrim
    Ard Mhacha - Armagh
    An Cabhán - Cavan
    Doire - Derry
    An Dún - Down
    Dún na nGall - Donegal
    Fear Manach - Fermanagh
    Muineachán - Monaghan
    Tír Eoghain - Tyrone

    Bailte Móra
    Trá Lí - Tralee
    Cill Áirne - Kilarney
    Inis - Ennis
    Caisleán Nua Thiar - Newcastle West
    Durlas - Thurles
    Caiseal - Cashel
    Béal Feirste - Belfast
    Leitir Ceannain - Letterkenny
    Inis Ceithleann - Enniskillen
    Nás na Ríogh - Naas
    Droichead Nua - Newbridge
    Portlaoise
    Cora Droma Rúisc - Carrick-on-Shannon
    Cúil Rathain - Coleraine
    Dún Dealgan - Dundalk
    Droichead Átha - Drogheda
    Caisleán an Bharraigh - Castlebar
    Cathair na Mart - Westport
    An Uaimh - Navan
    Tulach Mhór - Tullamore
    Aonach Urmhumhan/An tAonach - Nenagh
    An Ómaigh - Omagh
    Dún Garbhán - Dungarvan
    An Muileann gCearr - Mullingar
    Baile Átha Luain - Athlone
    An Clochán - Clifden
    Maigh Nuad - Maynooth
    Ceanannas - Kells

    Ceantair Ghaeltachta

    Dún na nGall - Tír Chonaill
    - Gaoth Dobhair
    - Cloích Cheannfhaola
    - na Rosa
    - Anagaire
    - Croithlí
    - Rann na Feirste

    Gaillimh - Conamara
    - Garumna
    - Leitir Móir
    - Leitir Mealláin
    - Carna
    - Camus
    - Ros Muc
    - Corr na Móna
    - Spidéal
    - Na Forbacha
    - Bearna
    - Indreabhán
    - An Ceathrú Rua
    - Oileáin Árann (Inis Oírr, Inis Meáin, Inis Mór)

    Ciarraí
    - Corca Dhuibhne
    - Daingean Uí Chúis
    - Dún Chaoin
    - Ceann Trá
    - An Fheothanach
    - An Mhuiríoch
    - Baile an Fheirtéaraigh
    - Uíbh Ráthach

    An Mhí
    - Ráth Cairn
    - Baile Ghib

    Port Láirge - Gaeltacht na nDéise
    - An Rinn

    Corcaigh
    - Múscraí
    - Béal Átha an Ghaorthaidh
    - Baile Bhuirne
    - Cúil Aodha
    - Cill na Martra
    - Cléire

    Maigh Eo
    - Béal an Mhuirthead
    - Ceathrú Thaidhg
    - Tuar Mhic Éadaigh
    - Acaill


  • #2


    An tAm agus Imeacht Ama

    Laethanta na Seachtaine
    An Luan/Dé Luain - Monday
    An Mháirt/Dé Máirt - Tuesday
    An Chéadaoin/Dé Céadaoin - Wednesday
    An Déardaoin/Déardaoin - Thursday
    An Aoine/Dé hAoine - Friday
    An Satharn/Dé Sathairn - Saturday
    An Domhnach/Dé Domhnaigh - Sunday

    Míona na Bliana
    Eanáir - January
    Feabhra - February
    Márta - March
    Aibreán - April
    Bealtaine - May
    Meitheamh - June
    Iúil - July
    Lúnasa - August
    Meán Fómhair - September
    Deireadh Fómhair - October
    Samhain - November
    Nollaig - December

    Na Séasúir
    An tEarrach - spring
    An Samhradh - summer
    An Fómhar - autumn
    An Geimhreadh - winter

    Ginearálta

    Inniu - today
    Inné - yesterday
    Amárach - tomorrow

    Anois - now
    Ansin - then
    Arís - again
    Gach - every
    Seo chaite - last
    Seo chugainn - next
    Roimh - before (a noun/event)
    Sula - before (verbs)
    Le linn/I rith - during
    I gcaitheamh/Ar feadh - during
    Tar éis - after

    Go luath - soon
    Go moch - early
    Déanach - late
    Le fada - for a long time
    Le gairid - recently
    Le déanaí - lately/recently
    Tráth dá raibh - once
    An tráth a... - the time that...
    Go minic - often
    Go hannamh - rarely
    I gcónaí - always
    Uaireanta/Scaití - sometimes
    Anois is arís - now and then/sometimes
    Ó am go chéile - from time to time
    Faoi dheireadh - at last/eventually
    Deireannach - latest
    Deiridh - last/final
    Sa deireadh thiar thall - evetually
    Buan - permanent
    Sealadach - temporary
    Páirt-aimseartha - part-time
    Síoraíocht - eternity
    Go síoraí - eternally
    Go brách - evermore
    Marthanach - lasting/enduring/ever-lasting
    Riamh - never/ever (past + present)
    Imithe thart - gone by
    Fadó fadó - long, long ago
    Choíche - never (future)
    An Todhcaí - the future
    Amach romhainn - ahead


    Soicind - second
    Nóiméad - minute
    Uair - hour
    Lá - day
    Oíche - night
    Seachtain - week
    Coicís - fortnight
    Mí - month
    Ráithe - quarter/3 months
    Séasúr - season
    Bliain - year
    Deich mbliana - decade
    Céad/Aois - century
    Mílaois - millennium

    Tréimhse - period
    Tamall - while
    Tamaillín - a short while
    Seal - while/spell/span/period/turn
    Gearrthéarma - short term
    Meántréimhseach - medium term
    Fadtréimhseach - long term
    Ré - era
    Tús - beginning
    Deireadh - end
    Thart - over/finished

    Anuraidh - last year
    I mbliana - this year
    Bliain ó shin - a year ago
    An bhliain seo chugainn - next year

    Anocht - tonight
    Aréir - last night
    Meán-oíche - midnight
    Breacdhorca - dusk
    Luí na gréine - sunset

    Éirí na gréine - sunrise
    Breacadh an lae/Camhaoir - dawn
    Maidin - morning
    Ar maidin - this morning/in the morning

    Nón - noon
    Iarnón - afternoon
    Tráthnóna - evening
    Deireadh seachtaine - weekend
    Laethanta saoire - holidays

    Grianstad - solstice
    Lá leathach/Eacaineacht - equinox


  • #2


    Logainmneacha - Place-names (geographical features)

    Achadh - agha, aghy, aghey, augha (field)
    Ard - ard (high/height)
    Áth - ath (ford)
    Baile - bally (homestead/settlement)
    Bealach - bally, balla(gh), bella(gh) (passage/pass)
    Bán - bane, baun, bain (white)
    Beag - beg (small)
    Béal - bel, bell (mouth/rivermouth)
    Binn/beann - ben, bin (small)
    Buí - boy (yellow)
    Breac - brack (mottled)
    Bun - bun (foot/mouth/bottom of river)
    Caiseal - cashel (ringfort)
    Ceapach - cappa(gh) (plot/tillage)
    Carn - carn (cairn)
    Ceathrú - carrow, carry (quarter)
    Carraig/creig - carrig, carrick, craig (rock/rocky outcrop)
    Cathair - cahir, caher (stone ring-fort/city)
    Cláir - clare (level land)
    Cloch - clough, clogh (rock)
    Cluain - clon, clone, cloon (meadow)
    Com - coom hollow)
    Corr - cor (small round hill)
    Coire - corry, curry (corry)
    Cruach - croagh (stack)
    Cúl - cul, cool (back)
    Cúil - cul, cool (nook/corner)
    Doire - derry (grove/oak-grove)
    Domhnach - dona(gh) (church)
    Droichead - droghed, drohed, drohid (bridge)
    Druim/Droim - drum, drom (ridge)
    Dubh - duff, duv (black)
    Dún - dun, doon (strong-hold/fort)
    Inis - ennis (island)
    Eiscir - esk, eish (eskir)
    Fionn - fin, finn (clear/white/fair)
    Fraoch - freagh, frack (heather)
    Garbh - garv (heather)
    Glas - glas, glass (green)
    Gleann - glen, glan (valley)
    Gorm - gorm (blue)
    Gort - gort (field)
    Oileán - illan, illaun (island)
    Inis - inish, innish, innis (island)
    Cill - kil, kill churchyard or graveyard
    Coill - kil, kill woods/woodland
    Cionn/Ceann - kin, ken (head)
    Cnoc - knock (hill)
    Liath - lea (grey)
    Leitir - letter (hillside)
    Lios - lis (earthen ring-fort)
    Loch - lough (lake)
    Lorga(n) - lurgan (long ridge)
    Mám - maum, maam (mountain pass)
    Maigh/Machaire - magh, may, moy, moi(gh) (plain)
    Móna/Monaidh - mona, money (peat-land/bog/turf)
    Mullach - mulla(gh) (summit)
    Muileann - mullin (mill)
    Mór - more (big/great)
    Nua - noe (new)
    Abhainn - owen (river)
    Poll - poll, poul (hole)
    Port - port (stronghold/fort)
    Port - port (landing place)
    Ráth - rath, rah (earthen ringfort)
    Riabhach - rea(gh), reva(gh) (brindled/speckled)
    Rua - roe (red)
    Ros - ros, rosh, rus, rush (wooded promontory)
    Sail(each) - sall, salla, sally (willow/s)
    Sean - shan (old)
    Seascann - sheskin (marsh/quagmire)
    Sceach - ske, skey, skay, skea(gh) (hawthorn)
    Srath - sragh, stra (floodplain)
    Sliabh - slieve (mountain)
    Tearmann - termon (refuge/sanctuary)
    Taobh - tieve (hillside)
    Tír - tyr, tir (territory)
    Tobar - tober, tubber (water well)
    Trá - tra (beach/strand)
    Tuaim - tuam, toom (burial mound)
    Tulach - tully, tulla(gh) (hillock/mound/heap)
    Urlár - orla, urlar (floor/flat land)
    Bheithe - vea(gh), vei(gh) (of birch)


  • #2


    Míle buíochas tá neart oibre déanta agat.


  • #2


    Nathanna Úsáideacha don Bhéaltriail

    Is mór an scannal é - It's a great scandal
    Is mór an náire é - It's a great shame/embarrassment
    Sín í an fhírinne ghlan! - That's the plain truth
    Is bocht an sceal é - It's a disgrace
    Nuair a smaoiníonn tú air - When you think of it
    Is iontach an rud é - It's a great thing
    Bhuel - Well
    Ó, a dhiabhail! - Gosh! (Literally, "Oh, the Devil!")
    Ar a laghad - At least
    A thiarcais! - Oh jeepers! Oh jaysus!
    Áfach - However
    Go bhfóire Dia oráinn - God help us
    Dia ar sábháil! - God save us!
    A leithéid de cheist! - Such a question!
    Dáiríre - Really/Seriously
    Dáiríre pire - Really and truly
    I ndeireadh na dála - Finally/At the end of the day/when all's said and done
    Cogar - Listen
    Dála an sceil: By the way
    Fan go gcloise tú - Wait till you hear
    An gcreidfea? - Would you believe?
    Is fíor dhuit - Your're right/It's true for you
    Anuas air sin - On top of that
    Ar aon chaoí - In any case
    Braitheann sé - It depends
    Gan dabht ar bith - Without a doubt
    Mar is eol duit féin - As you know yourself
    Ar thaobh amhain - On one side
    Ar thaobh eile - On the other side
    Mar atá ar eolas agat féin - As you know yourself
    Mise á rá leat - I’m telling you
    Mar a duirt mé cheana - As I said before
    Ar ndoigh - Of course
    I mo thuairim phearsanta féin - In my own personal opinion
    Nil mé ach ag magadh - I’m only joking
    Níl mé ag magadh - I’m not joking
    Bhí/Ní raibh mé ag suíl leis an gceist sin - I was/wasn't expecting that question
    Caithfidh mé a rá - I have to say
    Chomh maith leis sin - As well as that
    Creid mise - Believe me
    Creid é no na creid - Believe it or not
    Sin ceist mhaith - That's a good question
    Sin ceist shuimiúil - That's a good question
    An dtuigeann tú? - Do you understand?
    Céard eile? - What else?
    Buiochas le Día - Thank God
    Ar an gcéad dul síos - In the first place
    Creidim - I believe
    Cinnte - Certainly
    Leis an fhírinne a rá - To tell the truth
    Faraor - Unfortunately
    Is dócha - I suppose
    Ara stop! - Ah, stop!


  • #2


    Ceisteanna

    Cé? - Who?
    Cén duine? - Which person?
    Cé hé/hí/hiad? Who is he/she? Who are they?
    Cé acu? - Which of them?
    Cad? - What?
    Céard? - What?
    Cén rud? - What thing?
    Cathain? - When?
    Cén uair? - What time?
    Cé chomh minic? - How often?
    Cén fáth? - Why?
    Cad cuige? - Why? What for?
    Tuige? - Why? Why not?
    Cad ina thaobh? What about it? Why?
    Cá/cár? - Where? (cár = aimsir chaite)
    Cén áit? - What place?
    Cá háit? - Where?
    Cá fhad? - How long?
    Cé mhéad? - How much/many?
    An mó _____? - The amount/number of _____?
    Conas? - How?
    Cén chaoi? - How?
    Cén dóigh? - How? What way?
    Cén saghas/sórt? - What kind/sort?
    Cén aois? - What age?
    Céard a tharla? - What happened?
    Cad as do ______? - Where is _____ from?
    Cén uimhir theileafóin? - What telephone number?
    Cén spriocdháta? - What closing-date?
    Cad é do thuairim ar ____ - What is your opinion of ______?

    Luaigh - Mention
    Ainmnigh - Name
    Scríobh - Write
    Breac síos - Write/jot down
    Léirigh - Clarify/Show
    Tabhair - Give
    Déan comparáid - Compare
    Cuntas gairid - Concise account
    Déan do mheas ar ____ - Give your opinion of
    Déan cur síos ar ____ - Describe


  • #2


    Ainmfhocail - Tuisil 7 Inscin (Nouns - Cases & Gender)

    Na Tuisil (the Cases)

    An Tuiseal Ainmneach: Nominative case - marks the subject of a verb
    An Tuiseal Cuspóireach: Accusative case - marks the direct object of a transitive verb (most verbs)
    An Tuiseal Gairmeach: Vocative case - identifies a person/animal/object, etc. being addressed
    An Tuiseal Tabharthach: Dative case – prepositional; “in/on/at/over/above/below/of/from/etc.”
    An Tuiseal Ginideach: Genitive case - marks a noun as modifying another noun

    An tAinmneach Uatha (Ainmneach & Cuspóireach (singular) follow the same rules in Irish)

    • Cuireann an t-alt séimhiú ar Ainmfhocail Bhaininscneacha (consain: b, c, f, g, m, p) (the
    definite article, “the”, requires a séimhiú on Feminine Nouns that start with
    consonants)

    • Cuireann an t-alt “t” roimh Ainmfhocail Bhaininscneacha dar tús “s”. (the definite article,
    “the”, requires a “t” on Feminine Nouns that start with “s”)

    • Cuireann an t-alt “t-” roimh Ainmfhocail Fhirinscneacha dar tús guta. (the definite article,
    “the”, requires a “t-” on Masculine Nouns that start with vowels)


    An tAinmneach Iolra. (Aimneach & Cuspóireach plural)
    • “Na” is ea foirm an ailt san Ainmneach Iolra. Cuireann sé “h” roimh ghutaí. (The spelling
    “na” is always used for “the” in plurals. It adds a “h” before words that begin with
    vowels)


    Treoracha ginearálta chun ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha a aithint.
    1. Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar chonsan caol. (áit, agóid, tír, cathair, Dáil, Eaglais, fuil,
      7rl.) (nouns ending with slender consonants) Eisceachtaí (exceptions): focail a chríochnaíonn ar
      -aeir/-éir, -eoir/-óir, -úir, -ín (mar shampla: grósaeir, bádóir, cainteoir, cailín, ceirnín, cipín) agus
      focail mar athair, uncail, deartháir, buachaill, droim, greim.
    2. Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar -eog/-óg nó ar -lann, (m.sh: fuinneog, leadóg, amharclann)
    3. Ainmfhocail ilsiollacha (multi-syllabic nouns) a chríochnaíonn ar -acht/-íocht, (áilleacht,
      eolaíocht, cleasaíocht, filíocht, iarracht, mallacht, fealsúnacht, fiosracht, 7rl) (“smacht” and
      “ceacht” are therefore masculine because they have only one syllable)
    4. Ainmfhocail Tíortha/Aibhneacha/Teangacha (seachas An Béarla) (almost all countries,
      rivers, languages; exception: An Béarla is masculine)
    5. Ainmfhocail teibí (abstract nouns) a chríochnaíonn ar -e/í, (airde, déirce, gile, laige,
      sláinte, amaidí, imní)


  • #2


    Cathain a úsáidtear an Tuiseal Ginideach?

    • Nuair a bhíonn seilbh nó úinéiracht i gceist. (Possession or ownership)

    Más le duine rud éigin:
    leabhar + Seán => Leabhar Sheáin.
    cóta + Máire => Cóta Mháire
    carr + Séamas => Carr Shéamais
    ollscoil + Éire => Ollscoil na hÉireann

    • I gcás ainm briathartha, nuair a chuirtear gníomh in iúl. (After the verbal noun, when
    describing an action, where the verb would end with “ing” in English)


    peil => Ag imirt peile
    an fhuinneog => Ag glanadh na fuinneoige
    an aiste => Ag scríobh na haiste
    an t-úrlár => Ag scuabadh an úrláir
    an bia => Ag ithe an bhia
    an páipéar => Ag léamh an pháipéir
    an t-úll => Ag ithe an úill

    • Nuair a úsáidtear Réamhfhocal Comhshuite, cuirtear an t-ainmfhocal a leanann é sa T.G. (in
    the case of compound prepositions)


    an oíche => Ar feadh na hoíche
    an domhan => Ar fud an domhain
    an tseachtain => Go ceann seachtaine
    an geimhreadh => I rith an gheimhridh
    an samhradh => Le linn an tsamhraidh
    an balla => In aghaidh an bhalla.

    (ar aghaidh, os coinne, os comhair, ar chúl, taobh thiar, ar feadh, i gcaitheamh, i rith, in imeacht, le linn, ar fud, ar lorg, ar nós, ar son, thar ceann, de cheann, ar tí, de bharr, dá bhrí, de thairbhe, de réir, faoi choinne, le haghaidh, i gcomhair, go ceann, i bhfeighil, i gcionn, i dteannta, i gcoinne, in aghaidh, in éadan, i lár, i láthair, i measc, i ndiaidh, tar éis, in áit, os cionn, os coinne, os comhair, faoi chúram, srl)

    • Nuair a thagann dhá ainmfhocal le chéile, cuirtear an dara ceann sa T.G. (when 2 nouns
    come together, the second goes into the genitive case; often where you would see “of the”
    or ‘s in English)


    (caint + máistir) => Caint an mháistir
    (tafann + madra) => Tafann an mhadra
    (eochair + taisceadán) => Eochair an taisceadáin
    (solas + gealach) => Solas na gealaí
    (leath + obair) => tús maith, leath na hoibre

    • Tar éis Réamhfhocail Simplí áirithe (chun, cois, dála, timpeall, trasna), leanann an T.G.
    (these 5 particular simple prepositions)

    an Ghealtacht => chun na Gaeltachta
    an fharraige => cois na farraige
    an scéal => dála an scéil
    an chathair => timpeall na cathrach
    an tsráid => trasna na sráide

    • An Ginideach Rannaíoch ("partitive") (words describing quantities)

    Ciallaíonn seo go gcuireann focail nó frásaí cosúil le "a lán/an iomad/an t-uafás/barraíocht/beagán/beagainín/cuid/dóthain/go leor/méid/mórán/níos mó/níos lú/oiread/roinnt" an t-ainmfhocal a leanann iad sa TG.


  • #2


    Na Díochlaontaí - The Declensions
    • An Chéad Díochlaonadh
    - ainmfhocail ghearra aonsiollacha a chríochnaíon ar chonsan leathan: (short, monosyllabic nouns, broad consonant ending)
    M.Sh: alt, bord, breac, cat, iasc, mac, naomh, peann, capall, sagart, fearr, ceart, féir, ard, cuireadh, samhradh, geimhreadh, deireadh, misneach)

    -ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar chonsan fada leathan: (nouns ending on long broad consonants)
    M.Sh: á/ó/ú + consan => arán, cosán, ómós, casúr, garsún, gaol, saol, scéal, eitleán, nó focail a chríochnaíonn ar -éad/-éal, 7rl

    Iad go léir Firinscneach. (ALL are masculine in this group)

    Samplaí.
    1. Andúileach : an t-andúileach/na handúiligh : drugaí an andúiligh/drugaí na n-andúileach
    2. Barún : an barún/na barúin : airgead an bharúin/airgead na mbarún
    3. Bochtanas : an bochtanas : staid an bhochtanais
    4. Ceantar : an ceantar/na ceantair : muintir an cheantair/muintir na gceantar
    5. Ceol : an ceol : fuaim an cheoil
    6. Clár : an clár/na cláir : fad an chláir/fad na gclár
    7. Coirpeach : an coirpeach/na coirpigh : scaoileadh an choirpigh/ scaoileadh na gcoirpeach
    8. Sagart : an sagart/na sagairt : tigh an tsagairt/tithe na sagart
    9. Foréigean : an foréigean : méad an fhoréigin
    • An Dara Díochlaonadh
    - cuirtear "e" ag deireadh chun an ginideach a dhéanamh

    - críochnaíonn siad ar chosan caol nó leathann.

    Iad go léir Baininscneach.

    Samplaí: -lann, -óg, -eog, tíortha, teangacha, cloch, cos, cluas, áit, carraig, muintir, sráid, súil, seachtain, páirc, girseach, coill

    1. Abairt : an abairt/na habairtí : brí na habairte/brí na n-abairtí
    2. Aidhm : an aidhm/na haidhmeanna : méad na haidhme/méad na haidhmeanna
    3. Aisling : an aisling/na haislingí : brí na haislinge/brí na n-aislingí
    4. Ceist : an cheist/na ceisteanna : freagra na ceiste/freagraí na gceisteanna
    • An Tríú Díochlaonadh
    - críochnaíonn ainmfhocail sa 3ú Díochlaonadh ar chonsan. (end on consonant)

    - tá meascán d'ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha agus baininscneacha ann (mixture of genders)

    • ainmfhocail phearsanta ag críochnú ar -óir, -éir, -úir (Firinscneach)
    • ainmfhocail theibí ag críochnú ar -(e)acht, -(a)íocht (Baininscneach) (abstract nouns)

    - Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar chonsan caol => Baininscneach
    - Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar chonsan leathan => Firinscneach

    Samplaí.

    Masc: ceacht, cíos, rang, sos, múinteoir, dochtúir, comhairleoir.
    Fem: admháil, feoil, feadaíl, iomáint, canúint, gluaiseacht, eolaíocht, filiocht, altóir, tagairt.

    1. Múinteoir : an múinteoir/na múinteoirí : mála an mhúinteora/málaí na múinteoirí
    2. Ceacht : an ceacht/na ceachtanna : ag foghlaim an cheachta/ag foghlaim na gceachtanna
    3. Fuil : an fhuil/na fola : ag cur fola/ ag grúpáil na bhfola
    4. Filíocht : an fhilíocht : ag scríobh na filíochta
    5. Am : an t-am/na hamanna : le linn an ama/ag cuimhneamh na n-amanna
    • An Ceathrú Díochlaonadh
    - críochnaíonn na hainmfhocail ar "-ín" nó ar ghuta san Uimhir Uatha (ending: “ín” or vowels)

    - is firinscneach d'fhormhór iad (mostly masculine, but some feminine)

    - níl aon athrú i gceist sa don Tuiseal Ginideach Uatha

    - tá tréaniolraí ag na hainmfhocail go léir (-í, -te, -the, -anna) de ghnáth. (strong plurals all)

    Samplaí:
    iascaire, ailtire, file, rúnaí, oibrí, -aoi, -áiste, -ae, balla, comhrá, fáinne, cnó, sú, toitín, coinín, contae, aturnae, coláiste, bagáiste, páiste, draoi, saoi, bata, bus, club, cóta, gúna, hata, máistir, pas, stop, téacs, tram, oráiste, uisce, bríste.
    Fem: trá, tréimhse, féile, bó, eagla,

    1. Cailín : an cailín/na cailíní : ainm an chailín/ainmneacha na gcailíní
    2. Mála : an mála/na málaí : dath an mhála/dath na málaí
    3. Ainmhí : an t-ainmhí/na hainmhithe : bás an ainmhí/bás na hainmhithe
    4. Aiste : an aiste/na haistí : tús na haiste/tús na n-aistí
    5. Farraige : an farraige/na farraigí : trasna na farraige/stair na bhfarraigí
    6. File : an file/na filí : saothar an fhile/saothar na bhfilí
    7. Gadaí : an gadaí/na gadaithe : ainm an ghadaí/ainmneacha na ngadaithe
    8. Oibrí : an t-oibrí/na hoibrithe : oifig an oibrí/oifigí na n-oibrithe
    • An Cúigiú Díochlaonadh
    - críochnaíonn na hainmfhocail seo ar chonsan caol (-in, -ir, -il) nó ar ghuta. (slender consonant or vowel)

    - is baininscneach d'fhormhór na n-ainmfhocail (mostly feminine nouns, some masculine)

    - tá tréaniolraí acu (stong plurals all)

    - sa Ghinideach Uatha críochnaíonn siad ar chonsan leathan. (broad consonant ending in the genitive)

    Samplaí. Triail, riail, traein, coróin, litir, athair, ceathrú, deachú, pearsa, comharsa, leite, cara, cathaoir, uimhir, deoch,

    1. Cáin : an cháin/na cánacha : airgead na cánach/airgead na gcánacha
    2. Riail : an riail/an rialacha : sárú na rialach/sárú na rialacha
    3. Eochair : an eochair/na heochracha : poll na heochrach/poill na n-eochracha
    4. Litir : an litir/an litreacha : ag scríobh na litreach/ag scríobh na litreacha


  • #2


    Great stuff, just had a quick run through it (It's a bit late) and it looks like you put a good bit of time into the thread. I'll have to have a proper look tommorow.

    Edit: Later on today


  • #2


    An Tuiseal Ainmneach & Cuspóireach

    An tAinmneach Uatha
    • Cuireann an t-alt séimhiú ar Ainmfhocail Bhaininscneacha (consain: b, c, f, g, m, p)
    • Cuireann an t-alt “t” roimh Ainmfhocail Bhaininscneacha dar tús “s”.
    • Cuireann an t-alt “t” roimh Ainmfhocail Fhirinscneacha dar tús guta.

    An tAinmneach Iolra

    “Na” is ea foirm an ailt san Ainmneach Iolra. Cuireann sé “h” roimh ghutaí.

    Treoracha ginearálta chun ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha a aithint.

    1. Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar chonsan caol. (áit, agóid, tír, cathair, Dáil, Eaglasis, fuil, 7rl.) Eisceachtaí exceptions: focail a chríochnaíonn ar -aeir/-éir, -eoir/-óir, -úir, -ín (mar shampla: grósaeir, bádóir, cainteoir, cailín, ceirnín, cipín) agus focail mar athair, uncail, deartháir, buachaill, droim, greim.
    Nouns ending on slender consonants)

    2. Ainmfhocail a chríochnaíonn ar -eog/-óg nó ar -lann, (m.sh: fuinneog, leadóg, amharclann)
    Nouns ending on eog/óg/lann

    3. Ainmfhocail ilsiollacha a chríochnaíonn ar -acht/-íocht, (áilleacht, eolaíocht, cleasaíocht, filíocht, iarracht, mallacht, fealsúnacht, fiosracht, 7rl)
    Multi-syllabic nouns ending on acht/aíocht/eacht/íocht)

    4. Ainmfhocail Tíortha/Aibhneacha/Teangacha (seachas An Béarla)
    Countries/Rivers/Languages

    5. Ainmfhocail teibí a chríochnaíonn ar -e/í, (airde, déirce, gile, laige, sláinte, amaidí, imní)
    Abstract nouns ending on -e/í)


  • #2


    An Séimhiú

    * Seilbh/Úinéireacht: mo/do/a (fir.) (possession/ownership: my, your, his)

    * Treisiú: an-/fíor-/rí/ró- (after prefixes used for emphasis)

    * Ainmfhocail bhaininscneacha leis an alt (in feminine nouns, after the word "an")

    * Briathra san Aimsir Chaite

    * Briathra sa Mhodh Coinníollach

    * San fhoirm cheisteach, tar éis: ar? (questions asked with the word "ar?")

    * Na Réamhfhocail seo: de; do; faoi; ó; roimh; trí; um; mar; ionsar

    * Sa Tuiseal Tabharthach tar éis na réamhfhocal den, don, sa

    * Ag comhaireamh: 2 – 6 (counting: 2-6)

    * An chéad (1st)

    * Aidiachtaí iolra tar éis consan caol (m.sh. fir mhóra) (adjectives after nouns in the plural with slender endings)

    * Sa Tuiseal Ginideach uatha, tar éis “an” (firinscneach)

    An t-Urú

    * Seilbh/Úinéireacht: ár/bhúr/a (iolra) (possession/ownership: our, your, their)

    * Tar éis na Réamhfhocail seo sa Tuiseal Tabharthach: ag an; ar an; as an; chuig an; faoin; ón; leis an; roimh an; thar an; tríd an; um an.

    * Ag comhaireamh: 7 – 10 (counting: 7-10)

    * San Fhoirm Cheisteach, tar éis: An? (questions asked with the word "an?")

    * Tar éis: go; nach; mura/muna; sula

    * Tar éis an réamhfhocal “i”, gan an t-alt (“i mbaol”, “i dtaisceadán”)

    * Roimh ainmfhocail fhirinscneacha a thosaíonn le guta. (t- a/e/i/o/u)

    * Cuirtear t roimh sl, sn, sr agus s + guta in Ainmfhocail Bhaininscneacha (feminine nouns starting with "s" ---> an ts___)

    * Sa Tuiseal Ginideach iolra, tar éis “na”


  • #2


    Na Briathra Neamhrialta

    Ordaitheach | A.Chaite |A.Láithreach | A.Fháistineach | Modh Coinníollach

    Abair ("say") | Dúirt | Deir | Déarfaidh | Déarfadh

    Beir ("catch/grab") | Rug | Beireann | Béarfaidh | Bhéarfadh

    ("be") | Bhí | Bíonn | Beidh | Bheadh

    Clois ("hear") | Chuala | Cloiseann | Cloisfidh | Chloisfeadh

    Déan ("make/do") | Rinne | Déanann | Déanfaidh | Dhéanfadh

    Faigh ("find/get") | Fuair | Faigheann | Gheobhaidh | Gheobhadh

    Feic ("see") | Chonaic | Feiceann | Feicfidh | D’fheicfeadh

    Ith ("eat") | D’ith | Itheann | Íosfaidh | D’íosfadh

    Tabhair ("give") | Thug | Tugann | Tabharfaidh | Thabharfadh

    Tar ("come") | Tháinig | Tagann | Tiocfaidh | Thiocfadh

    Téigh ("go") | Chuaigh | Téann | Rachaidh | Rachfadh


  • #2


    An Modh Coinníollach

    Na Briathra Neamhrialta

    | | | Sé/Sí/Sibh | Sinn/Muid | Siad | Briathar Saor

    Abair ("would say") | Déarfainn | Déarfá | Déarfadh sé/sí/sibh | Déarfaimis | Déarfaidis | Déarfaí

    Beir ("would catch/grab") | Bhéarfainn | Bhéarfá | Bhéarfadh sé/sí/sibh | Bhéarfaimis | Bhéarfaidis | Bhéarfaí

    ("would be") | Bheinn | Bheifeá | Bheadh sé/sí/sibh | Bheimis | Bheidis | Bheifí

    Clois ("would hear") | Chloisfinn | Chloisfeá | Chloisfeadh sé/sí/sibh | Chloisfimis | Chloisfidis | Chloisfí

    Déan ("would make/do") | Dhéanfainn | Dhéanfá | Dhéanfadh sé/sí/sibh | Dhéanfaimis | Dhéanfaidis | Dhéanfaí

    Faigh ("would find/get") | Gheobhainn | Gheofá | Gheobhadh sé/sí/sibh | Gheobhaimis | Gheobhaidis | Gheofaí

    Feic ("would see") | D’fheicfinn | D’fheicfeá | D’fheicfeadh sé/sí/sibh | D’fheicfimis | D’fheicfidis | D’fheicfí

    Ith ("would eat") | D’íosfainn | D’íosfá | D’íosfadh sé/sí/sibh | D’íosfaimis | D’íosfaidis | D’íosfaí

    Tabhair ("would give") | Thabharfainn | Thabharfá | Thabharfadh sé/sí/sibh | Thabharfaimis | Thabharfaidis | Thabharfaí

    Tar ("would come") | Thiocfainn | Thiocfá | Thiocfadh sé/sí/sibh | Thiocfaimis | Thiocfaidis | Thiocfaí

    Téigh ("would go") | Rachainn | Rachfá | Rachfadh sé/sí/sibh | Rachfaimis | Rachfaidis | Rachfaí


  • #2


    Seanfhocail: Samplaí - Proverbs (Samples)

    1. Is ait an mac an saol. | Life is strange.
    2. Is binn béal ina thost. | "Silence is golden."
    3. Is fearr an tsláinte ná an táinte. | Health is better than wealth.
    4. Tagann cruatan i ndiaidh an chaite. | "Waste not, want not."
    5. Is glas iad na cnoic i bhfad uainn. | Faraway hills are green.
    6. Ar scáth a chéile a mhaireann na daoine. | People live in one another’s shadow.
    7. Maireann croí éadrom i bhfad. | A light heart lives longest.
    8. Ní bhíonn uasal ná íseal, ach thuas seal thíos seal. | Noble and poor are both up and down a while.
    9. Ní féidir an dubh a chur ina gheal, ach seal. | You can only deny the truth for a while.
    10. Ní mar a shíltear a bhítear. | Things are not always as they seem.
    11. Ní neart go cur le chéile. | There is no strength without unity.
    12. Ní thagann ciall roimh aois | Sense does not come before age.
    13. Níl aon leigheas ar an ngrá (ach pósadh!) | There is no cure for love (except marriage!)
    14. Soitheach folamh is mó torann. | Empty vessels make the most noise.
    15. Is maith an scéalaí an aimsir. | Time is a good messenger.
    16. Taithí a dhéanann máistreacht. | Experience brings perfection.
    17. Tír gan teanga, tír gan anam. | A country without a language is a country without a soul.
    18. Tús maith leath na hoibre | A good start is half the work.
    19. Beatha teanga í a labhairt. | The life of a language is to speak it.
    20. An té nach gcuirfidh san earrach, ní bhainfidh sé san fhómhar. | He who does not sow in spring will not reap in the autumn.
    21. An rud is annamh is iontach. | What is rare is wonderful.
    22. Is maith an scáthán súil charad. | A friend’s eye is a good mirror.
    23. Aithníonn ciaróg ciaróg eile. | "It takes one to know one."
    24. Moladh luath agus cáineadh mall. | Early praise and delayed criticism.
    25. Bíonn blas ar an mbeagán. | A little tastes well.
    26. Éist le fuaim na habhann agus gheobhaidh tú breac | Listen to the sound of the river and you will get a trout
    27. Eochair feasa foghlaim. | Learning is the key to knowledge.
    28. Faigheann an tseanbhróg an tseanstoca. | The old shoe gets the old stocking.
    29. Giorraíonn beirt bóthar. | Two shorten the road
    30. Uireasa a mhéadaíonn cumha. | Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
    31. Beidh lá eile ag an bPaorach. | Power will have another day.
    32. Is breá an ní an óige, ach ní thagann sí faoi dhó. | Youth is a fine thing, but it does not come twice.
    33. Níl aon tinteán mar do thinteán féin. | "There is no place like home."
    34. Níor bhris focal maith fiacail riamh. | A good word never broke a tooth.
    35. Tarraingíonn scéal scéal eile.| One story leads on to another.
    36. Ní bhíonn in aon rud ach seal. | "Nothing lasts for ever."
    37. Ní dhéanfaidh an saol capall rása d’asal. | The world would not make a donkey a racehorse.
    38. Is minic ciúin ciontach. | The quiet ones are often guilty.
    39. I ndiaidh a chéile a thógtar na caisleáin. | "Rome was not built in a day."
    40. Imíonn an tuirse is fanann an tairbhe. | Tiredness goes away and the benefit remains.
    41. Aithnítear cara i gcruatan. | It is in hardship that a friend is recognised.
    42. An té a bhíonn siúlach, bíonn sé scéalach. | Travellers have tales to tell.
    43. Is fearr cara sa chúirt ná punt sa sparán. | Better a friend in court than a pound in the purse.
    44. Ní sheasann sac folamh. | An empty sack will not stand.
    45. An té nach bhfuil láidir, ní mór dó a bheith glic. | He who is weak needs to be clever.
    46. Ná mol agus ná cáin tú féin. | Neither praise nor criticise yourself.
    47. Buail an t-iarann te. | "Strike when the iron is hot."
    48. Ní thagann ciall roimh aois. | Sense doesn’t come before age.
    49. Múineann gá seift. | "Necessity is the mother of invention."
    50. Ní fhanann trá le héinne. | "Time and tide awaits no man."
    51. Ná tabhair breith ar an chéad scéal. | Never judge on first opinions.
    52. Ag tuileadh agus ag trá a chaitheann an fharraige an lá. | The tide spends the day going in and out.
    53. Oíche aerach is maidin bhrónach. | A lively night and a sad morning.
    54. Ar scáth a chéile a mhairimid. | We all exist in each others’ shadow.
    55. Go n-éirí an bóthar leat is do chosán cóngair. | May your journey, long or short, be a success.
    56. An té a bhíos amuigh fuaraíonn a chuid. | Out of sight out of mind.
    57. Níl aon mhaith sa seanchas nuair a bhíonn an anachain déanta. | What is done cannot be undone
    58. An rud is giorra is géire. | Brevity is the soul of wit.
    59. Is minic a bhí fear maith i seanbhríste. | There was often a good man in old trousers.
    60. An ní nach bhfeiceann súil ní bhrónann croí. | What the eye sees not the heart rues not.
    61. Is minic a mhaolaigh béile maith brón. | All griefs are less with bread.
    62. Is fearr banlámh den lá ná dhá bhanlámh den oíche. | It is better to start early than to work late.
    63. Is fearr “A Mhuire mo thrua’ ná “A Mhuire, mo náire. | Defeat is better than disgrace.
    64. Bhuafadh an imní ar an gcinniúint. | Worry could overcome fate.
    65. Síleann fear na buile gurb é féin fear na céille. | The madman prides himself on his good sense.
    66. Dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi (go ndúirt bean eile gur inis bean di...) | A woman told me that a woman told her (that another woman said that a woman said to her...)
    67. An té nach mbeireann ar an ngnó, beireann an gnó air. | He who doesn’t get a grip on the job, the job grips him.
    68. Níor chaill fear an mhisnigh riamh é. | The man of courage never lost it yet.
    69. Is sia dúch an scolaire ná fuil an mhairtírigh. | A scholars ink lasts longer than a martyr’s blood.
    70. Is olc an ghaoth nach séideann rath do dhuine éigin. | It’s an ill wind blows nobody any good
    71. Tabhair rogha don bhodach agus is é an díogha a thoghfaidh sé. | Give a choice to the churl and it’s the worst he will pick.
    72. Ní chronaítear an t-uisce go dtriomaítear an tobar. | The water isn’t missed until the well dries up.
    73. Cuir an breac san eangach sula gcuire tú sa phota é. | Put the trout in the net before you put it in the pot.
    74. Is trom an t-ualach an t-aineaolas. | Ignorance is a heavy burden.
    75. Is fearr go mall ná go brách/ Is fearr déanach ná choíche | Better late than never.


  • #2


    Réamhfhocail Chomshuite - Compound Prepositions

    tar éis - after
    ar feadh - for the duration of
    ar fud - all over
    le linn - during
    i rith - during
    i gcaitheamh - during
    ar thaobh - at the side of
    os comhair - in front of
    os cionn - over-head/above
    ar chúl - at the back of
    i lár - in the middle of
    i gcoinne - against
    in éadan - against
    in aghaidh - against
    ar son - for/in favour
    i bhfábhar - for/in favour
    i dtús - in the beginning
    i gceann - at the end of
    ag deireadh - at the end of
    i ndiaidh - after
    go ceann - until/for
    de bhrí - because of
    de bharr - as a result of
    as ucht - for, because of
    de réir - due to, according to
    i bhfochair - together with
    i láthair - in the presence of
    le hais - compared to/next to
    ar nós - like/in the style of
    d'ainneoin - despite
    in áit - in place of
    i gcuideachta - in the company of
    i bhfianaise - in view of
    ar aghaidh - across from/opposite
    i leith - for/about/towards
    i measc - among
    i dteannta - together with
    i dtóin - in the bottom of/at the back end of
    ar imeall - on the edge of
    ar lorg - searching for/in pursuit of
    ar tí - about to
    de thairbhe - by virtue of, as a result of, on account of
    de réir - according to
    i bhfeighil - looking after/tending to
    faoi chúram - in the care of
    faoi/fá choinne - meant for
    faoi dhéin - meeting/fetching/towards
    ag bun - at the bottom of
    ag barr - at the top of
    ar bhruach - at the brink/verge/bank of
    i mbun - attending to/in charge of/in the process of


  • #2


    Filíocht, Prós 7 Amhránaíocht - Poetry, Prose, Songwriting terms

    Dán - poem
    Amhrán - song
    Scéal - story
    Úrscéal - novel
    Gearrscéal - short story
    Scannán - film
    Gearrscannán - short-film
    Rann - verse (usually 4 lines)
    Véarsa - verse
    Líne - line
    Leathrann - couplet (2 lines)
    Caibidil - chapter
    Sliocht - extract
    Alt - paragraph/article
    Leathanach - page
    Réamhrá - preface/preamble/introduction
    Cúlra - background

    File - poet
    Údar - author
    An t-údar - the author
    Scéalaí - story-teller/narrator
    Scríbhneoir - writer
    Iriseoir - journalist
    Ealaíontóir - artist
    An t-ealaíontóir - the artist
    Léirmheastóir - critic

    Rím - rhyme
    Rithim - rhythm
    Comhfhuaim - assonance/consonance
    Uaim - alliteration
    Comhardadh - Bardic rhyme
    Buile - beat
    Meadaireacht - meter
    Comhfhocal - compound word
    Codarsnacht - contrast (differences)
    Comparáid - comparison (similarities)
    Greann - humour
    Teannas - tension
    Casadh - twist
    Ionadh - surprise
    Tragóid - tragedy

    Íomhá - Imagery/image
    Íomhánna - Images
    Mothúcháin - emotions
    Friotal - expression (choice of words/phrases)
    Athrá - repetition
    Fallás na Truamhéala - pathetic fallacy
    Atmaisféir - atmosphere
    Aidiacht/Aidiachtaí - adjective/adjectives
    Dobhriathar - adverb
    Samhail - simile
    Meafar - metaphor
    Siombal - symbol
    Pearsantú - personification
    Comhartha - signal
    Na céadfaí - the senses
    Áiféis - exaggeration
    Áibhéil - exaggeration
    Samhlaíocht - imagination
    Imeartas focal - wordplay

    Ceacht - lesson
    Teachtaireacht - message
    Léargas - insight
    Mianta - wishes, desires
    Soiléireacht - clarity
    Doiléireacht - haziness/obscurity/enigmatic/hard to understand
    Athbhríoch/Débhríoch - ambiguous (unclear: multiple possible meanings)
    Paradacsa - paradox
    Rúndiamhair - esoteric
    Rúnda - secret/secretive
    Achoimre - summary
    Béim - emphasis
    Aird - attention
    Nasc - link, connection
    Tagairt - reference
    Aoir - satire
    Scige - mockery, ridicule
    Aithris - imitation, copying, mimicking
    Fócas - focus
    Gar-amhairc - close-up
    Íostach - minimalist
    Barócach - Baroque/extravagantly decorative

    Dearfach - positive
    Diúltach - negative
    Dóchasach - hopeful
    Éadóchasach - hopeless
    Útóipeach - Utopian
    Diostóipeach - Dystopian


  • #2


    Postanna

    Tuismitheoir - parent
    Garda - Garda
    Múinteoir - teacher
    Siopadóir - shopkeeper
    Búistéir - butcher
    Tógálaí - builder
    Feirmeoir - farmer
    Rúnaí - secretary
    Bainisteoir - manager
    Doctúir - doctor
    Altra/Banaltra - nurse
    Oifigeach - officer
    Freastalaí - waiter/waitress
    Cócaire - chef
    Tréadlia - vet
    Fiaclóir - dentist
    Dlíodóir - lawyer
    Breitheamh - judge
    Fear an Phoist - postman
    Gruagaire - hairdresser
    Píolóta - pilot
    Ceoltóir - musician
    Imreoir - player
    Innealtóir - engineer
    Polaiteoir - politician
    Amhránaí - singer
    Iascaire - fisherman
    Scríbhneoir - writer
    Siúinéir - carpenter
    Sagart - priest
    Easpag - bishop
    Bean Rialta - nun
    Ollamh - professor
    Tiománaí - driver
    Ailtire - architect
    Báicéir - baker
    Cuntasóir - accountant
    Lia - surgeon
    Fear Dóiteáin - fireman
    Craoltóir - broadcaster
    Foilsitheoir - publisher
    Fáilteoir - receptionist
    Glantóir - cleaner
    Cúntóir - accountant
    Iriseoir - journalist
    Láithreoir - presenter
    Ealaíontóir - artist
    Meicneoir - mechanic
    Leictreoir - electrician
    Cigire - inspector
    File - poet
    Lúthchleasaí - athlete
    Dearthóir - designer


  • #2


    Neamhfhoirmiúil - Informal (family/friend)

    A Mháire, a chara
    A Phádraig, a chara
    A Dhaid dhil
    A Mham dhil
    A Liam , a chara
    A Uncail dhíl
    A Aintín dhíl

    Fuair mé do litir ar maidin agus bhí áthas an domhain orm. - I got your letter this morning and I was very happy.
    Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte - I hope you are in the best of health.
    Ní raibh am agam scríobh go dtí seo - I hadn’t time to write until now
    Caithfidh mé leithscéal a ghabháil leat - I have to apologise to you/Excuse me


    Caithfidh mé slán a fhágáil leat anois - I have to say goodbye now.
    Tá súil agam go bhfeicfidh mé go luath tú - I hope I see you soon.
    Tá orm m’obair bhaile a dhéanamh - I have to do my home work.
    Scríobh chugam go luath - write to me soon
    Ná dearmad litir a chur chugam - Don’t forget to send me a letter.
    Slán [agus ainm]
    Slán anois
          do chara
             Niall
    Le grá
           Caitlín
    Is mise do bhuanchara
    Dónall

    Dátaí

    26 Eanáir 2003 1 Meán Fómhair 2003
    18 Feabhra 2003 11 Márta 2003
    8 Samhain 2003 15 Meitheamh 2003

    Caithfidh mé imeacht anois - I have to go now
    Cuirfidh mé glaoch ort anocht - I will call you tonight.
    Tabharfaidh mé cuairt ort go luath - I will visit you soon.
    Buailfidh mé leat taobh amuigh den scoil - I will meet you outside the school.

    Foirmiúil - Formal (manager/editor/principal, etc.)

    A chara,
    A Eagarthóir, a chara, (Dear Editor)
    A dhuine uasail, (Dear sir/madam)
    A bhainistear, a chara, (Dear Manager)

    Is mise _____ - I am _____
    Tá mé ag scríobh thar ceann Rang a Trí - I am writing on behalf of class three.
    I dtosach, caithfidh mé a rá - First of all, I have to say.
    Ba mhaith liom buíochas a ghabháil leat - I would like to thank you.
    Táimse ag scríobh chugat thar ceann an ranga - I am writing on behalf of the class
    Is mian liom a rá – I would like to say
    Is dalta scoile mé – I am a school student
    Is déagóir mé – I am a teenager

    Críoch na litreach
    Is mise le meas
    Is mise
    Is mise do dhalta dílis

    Bheinn buíoch díot dá gcuirfeá glao orm go luath - I would be grateful if you called me soon.
    Ba mhaith liom go ndéanfá machnamh ar na pointí seo go luath - I would like you to think about these points soon.
    Beidh mé ag súil le litir uait ar do chaothúlacht - I will be expecting a letter from you at your convenience.

    Léim do pháipeár gach lá - I read your newspaper every day
    Ní aontaím leis na tuairimí a bhí sa pháipéar/ sa chlár - I don't agree with the opinions in the paper / programme
    D’inis tú bréag nuair a dúirt tú - You told a lie when you said
    Bhí tú ródhian ar na déagóirí - you were too severe on teenagers
    Bhí fearg an domhain orm nuair a cheannaigh mé an páipéar nuachta inné - I was very angry when I bought the newspaper yesterday


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