my history teacher is pretty good with predicting the paper and she thinks wolfe tone and the trasport revolution are coming up as essays. anyone have any sample answers for them?
the good thing is that although irish history seems to be everyone weakest points its pretty easily avoidable on the paper. once you know the basics for the short questions and stuff you can avoid it on the essays and the social change and 2nd yr history q in q6 are alot easier than irish history!
Theobald Wolfetone was a Dublin-born Protestant. A person's religion was very important in the 18th century. There were three main religions: Catholics, Presbyterians and Anglicans. The Penal Laws discriminated Catholics, they left them poor and powerless. Presbyterians were also slightly discriminated by the Anglicans as they would not allow them to sit in government jobs. Anglicans were divided into two groups, The Protestant Ascendancy, who controlled almost all the land and jobs and then the rest who had little wealth or power. Wolfetone belonged to this group.
Wolfetone belonged to the Church of Ireland but his family were not rich enough to be part of the Protestant Ascendancy. He studied law in Trinity College, but was more interested in politics. When the French revolution broke out, he welcomed it, hoping for "liberty, equality and fraternity" in Ireland too. In 1791 Presbyterians in Belfast set up a club to work for these ideas. Tone suggested they campaign against the Penal Laws. To convince them, he wrote a short book called "An Argument on behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". In it, Tone said that religious divisions were bad for Ireland. Many people were impressed by what he wrote and he was invited by Belfast Presbyterians him to join them in setting up the Society of United Irishmen.
The aims of the United Irishmen were to unite Irish people of all religions, reform the Irish parliament and reduce the power of the British government in Ireland. At first they worked peacefully for these aims, but in 1793 Britain went to war with France. The British thought that anyone who sympathised with French ideas was dangerous and watched the United Irishmen closely. When they found Tone talking to a French spy they forced him to leave Ireland for America and outlawed the UI.
New leaders took over after Tone left. They turned the UI into a secret society and planned a rebellion to set up an Irish republic. Tone knew they would need outside help. He went to France to persuade the French to send an army to Ireland. They listened to him and sent an army of 15,000 headed for Ireland. In December 1796 the army set out but their ships rant into terrible storms and had to go back to France.
This frightened the Ascendancy and the British government. They decided to destroy the UI before another French army could arrive. They used spies to uncover their plans and introduced a reign of terror in Ulster & Leinster. This then led to rebellions in Leinster, Wexford and Ulster which were unsuccessful. In Paris, Wolfe Tone at last persuaded the French to send more troops but they came too late to help the rebels. 1,100 men landed in Killala in Co. Mayo. Thousands of local people joined them. They defeated a small British army at Castlebar but then lost to a much larger force at Ballinamuck. A little later a small French fleet arrived in Lough Swilly in Dongela. Wolfe Tone was on board. The British navy captured them. Tone was sent to Dublin where he was tried and sentenced to hang. The asked to be shot like a soldier and when that was refused he committed suicide.
The Transport Revolution
Food, coal, cloth and other things had to be carried from place to place. This encouraged people to improve old ways of transport. Thomas Telford and James McAdam improved road surfaces. Private investors built toll roads. Stage and mail coaches became faster and more comfortable. In Ireland, Charles Bianconi began a coach service linking many country towns. Canals like the Bridgewater Canal linked cities to the sea. In Ireland the Grand and Royal Canals linked Dublin to the Shannon.
After James Watt invented the steam engine, people tried to use it in transport but it took a long time to find out how. Around 1820 steam engines were put in ships to make them faster and more reliable than sailing ships. Steam-driven wagons (locomotives) were too heavy for the roads. In mining areas they were put on rails to carry coal. George Stephenson invented the Rocket, the first reliable steam locomotive. It was used on the Liverpool to Manchester railway in 1829. After that railways were built all over the world. The first Irish railway was from Dublin to Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire) in 1834.
Microbiology & Biotechnology
Micro-organisms are small living things. There are three types of micro-organisms: viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Viruses are: the smallest micro-organisms, unable to reproduce by themselves (they use other cells to produce new viruses), parasites and the causes of diseases such as colds, flu, measles, mumps and AIDS. A parasite is a living thing that gets its food from another living thing.
Bacteria: are larger than viruses, are visible only under a microscope, need food, water, a suitable temperature and pH to grow, reproduce asexually, causes diseases such as TB, pneumonia, sore throats, tetanus and food poisoning and can be parasites or saprophytes. A saprophyte is a living thing that gets its food from dead sources. Advantages of bacteria is that they make foods such as cheese, butter and yoghurt and decay dead plants and animals (releasing minerals into the soil to be re-used by plants.) Disadvantages of bacteria are that they cause disease and destroy foods.
Antibiotics are chemicals made by micro-organisms that kill or prevent the growth of bacteria.
Fungi are: simple plants that do not contain chlorophyll, not green, not able to make their own food, single celled or made of underground threads. Advantages of fungi are that it can be eaten and used to make alcohol. Disadvantages of fungi are the it causes diseases such as athlete's foot and ringworm and causes food to rot.
Biotechnology is the use of living things or parts of living things to make useful products. Biotechnology used plants, animals, bacteria, yeasts and enzymes to produce useful products. Industrial uses of biotechnology include yeast, making alcohol in breweries and bacteria, making stain-removing enzymes for use in washing powders. Medical uses of biotechnology include bacteria and fungi, making antibiotics and bacteria and yeast being treated so that they can produce products such as human hormones, antibodies or drugs.
To investigate the presence of micro-organisms in air and soil:
- Obtain 3 sterile petri dishes, A B C, containing nutrient agar.
- Remove the lid from Dish A to allow micro-organisms from the air to land on the agar.
- Sprinkle a small sample of soil over the agar in Dish B.
- Do not open Dish C as this dish acts as a control.
- Close all the dishes, seal them with tape and label them on the undersides.
- Place the 3 dishes in a warm room or incubator for a few days.
- Dish A may have round, shiny patches of bacteria growing on the agar or there may be patches of fluffy growth which is caused by fungi.
- Dish B may be similar to Dish A.
- Dish C should have no growth on the surface of the agar.
Seeing as I have nothing better to do I think I'll might as well stick up some more notes. I am also testing my memory!
Archaeologist at work
Much of what we know about eaarly history comes from a special kind of historical detective work called archaeology. Archaeology is the study of very old things. Sometimes, the ruins of old building, churches and graves may still be visible above the ground and may be worth investigating. Even when the ruins have virtually disappeared, an archaeologist may locate them with the help of old maps or documents which pinpoint their location. Todays archaeologists often locate places of interest with the help of aerial photograph. Old stories and legends, while often unreliable and untrue can give important clues.
When archaeologists believe they have found a place worth investigating, it becomes an archaeological site. the site is divided into small sections usually square shaped and identified by different numbers or letters. Small pathways are marked out between the section sto prevent the archaeologists from treading on valuable finds.
The archaeologists slowly dig down into each section using small toos such as trowels and grologists hammers to avoid missing or breaking important finds. Kitchen spoons and penknoves ar often using on excavation swhile many archaeologists use toothbrushes when cleaning important finds. Finds such as pottery, tools or weapons are called artefacts.
At the end of a successful dig, thousands of objects may have been found. The task facing the archaeologists now will involve dating the sites and finds. The lower down an object is found, the longer ir has bee nthere and the older it is. The team of archaeologists sig down through each layer of earth, taking careful note of the depth at which each oject is found. This work is called stratigraphy. All living creatures and plants contain a substance called carbon-14. When they die this carbon 14 begins to decay at a steady rate. By measuring how rapidly carbon-14 is decaying , in a bone for example, scientists ca tell acurately how old it is. This process is called carbon-14 dating. We know the age of a tree by counting the rings inside it's trunk. The dating of wooden objects is called dendrochronology.
Ecology is the stdy of the relationships between plants, animals and their environments.
A habitat is where a plant or animal lives.
A population refers to all the members of a particular type of plant or animal living in a habitat.
A community refers to all the plants and animals in a habitat.
Producers are plants that make their own food.
Consumers are animals that get their food by eating plants or other animals.
Herbivores are animals that eat plants only.
Omnivores are animals that eat other animals only.
Decomposers are living things that feed on dead plants and animals.
A food chain is a list of living things in which each one is eaten by the next in the food chain.
Adaptations are structures or habits that living things have which enable them to survive in their habitats.
Competition occurs when two or more organisms require something that is in short supply.
A food web consists of two or more interconnected food chains.
Interdependence means that living things depend on each other for survival.
Studying a habitat involves:
- Making a sketch map of the habitat
- Measuring relevant environmental factors such as temperatures, light intensity or soil pH
- Identifying plants and animals, often using a key
- Collecting plants and animals using pooters, beating trays and pitfall traps
- Estimating the numbers of plants using quadrats or line transects
Human effects on the environment:
- Coservation is the protection and wise management of our natural resources
- Pollution is any unwanted change to our environment
- Waste management is essential to prevent pollution and to conserve our environment.
- Waste management involves the three R's : Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
thanks dkz, really helpful notes.
all i have on my computer is some religion definitions and some home-ec notes if anyone wants me to put them up .
p.s wanderingsoul,your science notes are really good if you have anything else on physics or chemistry it would be really appreciated, thanks. xxx
Consumer~ anyone who buys goods or uses services
Rights~truthful info,choice,value for money,safety,redress
Responsibilities~know/use laws,keep reciepts and gaurantees, complain if necessary,read instructions.
Consumer info act 1998 protects the consumer against false or misleading claims about goods, services and prices
Sale of goods and supply of services act 1990 means goods must be of merchantable quality,fit 4 purpose,as described.and conform to sample.
Gaurantee~undertaking by the manufacturer that they will make good any faults that occur during the period of the gaurantee.
Statutory~national consumer agency(enforces+info laws),office of the ombudsman(investigates unresolved complaints v.public)
Voluntary~consumers asso. of Ireland(advises+lobbies),ASAI (promotes honest, truthful and decent advertising)
Quality~high standard eg. Gauranteed irish,CE,NSAI
Money management=dividing income budget=plan for spending
Budget:housing 25%,food 25%,household expenses 15%, personal/travel/clothes 10%, entertainment/ education/savings/ emergencies 5%
Credit~buy now pay later,loan,higher purchase,bank overdraft
Advertising~introduce new products,increase sales,provide info
Legal control of advertising~consumer info act 1978,EU misleading advertising directive,employment equality act 1998
Voluntary conrol~advertising standards authority for Ireland
Shoping outlets~supermarket,chain stores,discount stores
Unit price~price per unit e.g. gram/kilo
Management~ skillfull treatment or handling of a task
Resouce~something you use to achieve a goal. Personal(energy, skills),money,commodities(food,equipment),community resources (libarys,schools)
Cleaning agents~water,detergent,abrasives,polish,bleaches,multi purpose cleaning agents.
Order of work~tidy sweep,dust,vaccum,wash,polish.
Good home~physical needs(food,warmth,shelter)emotional needs(love,security,protection)social needs(communicate feeling
Design~plan or sketch for the production of something
Charecteristics~atractivness, safety, durability, functionality
Features~colour,texture(feel),line(creates optical illusion),shape (outline),pattern(repeated design,can be fussy/boring)
Principles~balance(harmony between features),emphasis (drawing attention to a feature)porportion(objects relate to each other in size) rhythm(repeted use of features for harmony+unity)
Accidents caused by~appliaces,chance,people,badly constructed
Fire~extinguisher,never use water,ring brigade/raise alarm,evacuate,don’t re-enter,ring brigade.
First aid~1st treatment a person gets before medical help arrives
Antiseptic kills all germs,disinfectant kills harmful germs
Amenity~useful or pleasant place to spend time eg park,library
Live-brown, neutral-blue, earth-green and yellow
Services to the home~gas, electricity, water
Energy saving~switch off,turn down,recycle
Technology~science applied in a practical way. Makes food preparation quicker,easier,cleaner etc.
Ergonomics~study of the efficiency of people in the working environment. Involves: planning time, design and layout of equipment(work triangle), sequence of tasks.
RELIGION: belief in and worship of a god/gods
MONOTHEISM: belief in one god
POLYTHEISM: belief in many gods
HENOTHEISM: belief in 1 god but does not deny other gods
THEISM: yes there is a god
ATHEISM: there is no god
AGNOSTICISM: it is impossible to know if there is a god
SECULARISM: a decline in active membership of a religion
HUMANISM: belief in the power and reason of humans,not god
MATERIALISTS: seek fulfilment through material objects
ASCETIC: a person who lives a life of prayer and self denial
COMMUNITY OF FAITH: a group of people who share the same beliefs and worship in the same way
CREED: a set of beliefs in a religion e.g shahadah
SACRED TEXT: holy book containing important stories and key teachings of a religion e.g Koran
CODE: a set of guidelines for making moral decisions
WORSHIP: an action that recognises the importance of god
SENSE OF THE SACRED: awareness of the invisible and mysterious presence of god in your life
PRAYER: conversation from the heart between god and humans
RITUAL: a regular pattern to peoples worship e.g wudu
SIGN: an image/word/gesture that only has its obvious meaning
SYMBOL: an image, word or gesture that has another meaning
VOCATION: a calling to serve god e.g nun/priest
INTER-FAITH DIALOGUE: members of different world religions talking with and listening to one another
PLURALISM: belief that people of different world religions should learn to live alongside each other in peace
FUNDAMENTALISTS: accept the literal meaning of the bible
PILGRIMAGE: journey to a sacred place
CHRISTAINS: followers of jesus christ e.g catholics/orthodox
SECTARIANISM: narrow-minded, hostile attitude to people with different religious views e.g catholicsV.prodestants
ECUMENISM: the attempt to heal the rift between christains
REVERENCE: deep respect for someone or something
PROPHET: a holy man who received messages from god
NIGHT OF POWER AND EXCELLENCE: when muhammed is said to have revelation from allah on mount hira
HIJRA: the journey from mecca to medina taken by muhammed
5 ARTICLES OF FAITH: belief in allah/angels/Qur’an/ muhammmed/a final day of judgement
5 PILLAIRS OF FAITH: shahadah/creed, salat/prayer, zakat/charity, hajj/pilgrimage
IMAM: spiritual leader of a mosque. He is selected because of his knowledge of the Koran and commitment to islam.
MINBAR: raised platform where the imam gives a sermon
MIHRAB: an alcove in the wall that points towards mecca
MUEZZIN: calls muslims to prayer
MINARET:the tower where the muezzin calls muslims to prayer
WUDU: ritual washing of the hands + feet to prepare for prayer
AQIQA: muslim naming ceremony
CALIPH: successor to muhammed
SHISM: split or divide between members of a religion
SANHEDRIN: jewish court of law in ancient Palestine
TAX COLLECTOR: a traitor jew who worked for the romans
GOSPEL: good news. Principal source of info about jesus
EVANGELIST: writers of the gospel i.e mathew,mark,luke,john
SYNOPTIC: can be seen together/similar (mathew,mark,luke)
Q DOCUMENT: collection of jesus sayings used 4 johns gospel
DISCIPLE:following jesus and learning from his example
METANOIA: complete change of heart
APOSTLE: group of 12 close companions of jesus
THE KINGDOM OF GOD: a place love in peoples heart where they realise they are all gods children.
PARABLE:story with a hidden meaning e.g the good samaritian
BEATITUDES: a set of qualities people must have in order to be in the kingdom of god e.g deep faith, pure heart, merciful
MESSIAH: the anointed 1/chosen by god for an important task
INCARNATION: jesus is fully human and fully god
TRINITY: the belief that there are 3 persons in the 1 god
HERESY: spreading false ideas about god
ICON: decorated painting that shows an important religious idea
MYSTERY: a question to which humans cannot find the answer
REVALATION: the way god reaches out to people and reveals things about his nature which we would not otherwise know.
MORALITY: a set of beliefs that offer guidance on right/wrong
VALUE: what you consider to be good/important/worthwhile
SOCIALISATION: the way people aquire their values
MORAL VISION: a particular outlook on life
CONSCIENCE: a persons ability to apply their values to a moral situation and do the right thing
SHARI’A: a moral code which muslims, by law, must follow
LEGALISM: harsh and excessive devotion to the law
THEOCRACY: a state where religious laws are state laws