No. They're all stuff that we've taken down from teachers or sheets that we've been given.
Well, your teachers atleast does that...
We never do that kind of notes...
I've to say they are very good and well worth it.
Most of them are from our old English teacher. She's either coming back on Monday or in two weeks, so rumour has it.
The last section fo my English poetry notes:
A Christmas Childhood
· This poem deals with the magic, mystery and innocence of childhood. It describes how the most ordinary, everyday things can appear wonderful to children.
· Kavanagh recalls sights and sounds from his own childhood that filled him with wonder. He remembers the following things:
- white frost on one side of the potato pits
- the musical sounds of the paling post
- a ray of light beaming between bales of hay and straw
- tracks made by cattle
- “a green stone lying sideways in a ditch”
- Kavanagh can remember what it felt like to be a child, a “gay garden”, a happy and innocent time filled with wonder. He believes that in the eyes of a child, “any common sight” can be “transfigured” or filled with mystery and beauty.
- The poet remembers a particular Christmas morning from his childhood. We know it is very early as the stars are still in the sky. It is so cold that ice has formed in the potholes.
- The poet specifically remembers his father playing the, melodeon and his mother milking the cows.
- The poet conveys something of the anticipation and excitement that he felt on that morning: “as I pulled on my trousers in a hurry, I knew something strange had happened”
- As he looks out the door, his imagination takes over: to him, the stars seem to be dancing to his father’s music; the noise of the cows being milked also has a musical quality; to the poet, the stable is compared to where Jesus was born. The light that his mother uses is compared to the star of Bethlehem: “the light of her stable lamp was a star and the frost of Bethlehem made it twinkle”: three bushes on the horizon swaying in the wind remind the young child of the “Three Wise Kings”
- The magical nature of this specific memory is interrupted by the screeching of “a water-hen” and by the sound of “mass-going feet” crunching “the wafer-ice on the potholes”.
- We are reminded that even as a child, Kavanagh was already viewing the world through a poet’s eyes: “my child poet picked out the letters on the grey stone, in silver the wonder of a Christmas townland”
- After his vision of the three wise kings on their way to worship the baby Jesus, the poet is again interrupted with reality, an old man passes by who comments on his father’s skill as a melodeon player.
- The child is proud of the penknife he possibly got for Christmas. It makes him feel grown up: “I was six Christmases of age”.
- As he looks over this winter townland, he says a prayer to the Virgin Mary. He sees the prayer as his gift like the gift of a “white rose pinned on the Virgin Mary’s blouse”
- This poem is dominated with sentimental/powerful/biblical/striking/strong/effective/descriptive imagery.
- Light (stanza 1) symbolising a ray of light from heaven
- Fruit tree (stanza 1) symbolic of the tree of knowledge.
- Eating fruit (stanza 1) symbolises temptation = loss of innocence
- “The gay garden that was childhood’s” is symbolic of childhood innocence
- Stars in the morning east symbolise the Star of Bethlehem, create a sense of happiness
- Light of his mothers stable lamp becomes the star of Bethlehem
- Three whin bushes become the Three Wise Kings
- Six nicks are symbols of his age
- His prayer is symbolic of a gift to the Virgin Mary.
- The power of a child’s imagination is movingly illustrated when the young poet sees the story of Christmas come alive in the fields before him.
- This poem captures the magical nature of Christmas in the eyes of a child. He describes waking excitedly on Christmas morning. He seems delighted with his penknife and proud to understand the meaning of Christmas.
- This poem also laments the fact that childhood innocence cannot last forever. The poet suggests that as we grow older and acquire more knowledge of the world around us, we lose the ability to see the world as a wonderful, magical place.
- The poet compares the loss of this childhood innocence to the banishment of Adam Garden of Eden. Childhood is seen as a lost garden of innocence to which the poet can never return. We can remember what it was like to be a child but we can never experience childhood innocence again.
- A personal first person account
- His first personal experience of death, is relayed to us, the reader
- Use if the word “I” throughout = personal
A shocked sense of sadness surrounds these stages
The young boy (the speaker) is sympathised with by neighbours
- he is almost forced to grow up
- he is almost treated as an adult and a support to his parents
- mixed emotions described
Peaceful, calm feeling
- tender and intimate moment
- Heaney wrote this poem as a reflection on the death of his infant brother.
- The title has multiple meanings – literal meaning (school break) and metaphorical meaning (a break within the family).
- Heaney brings the reader with him as he has to walk into his house, through the porch to meet his father, big Jim Evans, the baby in the pram, the old men and finally his mother.
- There is a notable contrast between the way the mother and father react to their son’s death: the mother is angry, trying to restrain her emotions while the father is filled with tears, unable to control his emotions.
- Heaney feels embarrassed; he was treated like an adult by old men standing to shake his hand.
- In losing his four year old brother, Heaney also lost his own childhood innocence, as he discovered the brutal and harsh reality of life.
- The effect of the isolated final line is to allow the reader to focus on the tragedy of the young boy’s death.
- This poem has an overwhelming and powerful effect because the emotions are so understated and restrained.
- Heaney describes only what he sees, not commenting, never letting any real feeling of his own reach the surface.
- Heaney requests the reader to import the sorrow from themselves after reading this sorrowful, poignant poem.
Exclusion and Alienation, Bullying, School Life
This poem is about the misery of being left out or alienated at school. Two girls nicknamed “Tubby” and “Tich” are isolated individuals who are forced to suffer unduly.
Point of View
Tubby is the speaker in the poem, therefore we see her point of view.
Tich is a handicapped girl who is described in a humorous manner, having exaggerated physical features. Tich and Tubby were “always” the last two girls left out when teams were being picked.
Tubby remembers how neither girl looked at each other. They “avoided” eye contact. Why? Both felt embarrassed, humiliated and uncomfortable. As a means of distraction they may have re-tied a shoelace or taken an interest in a bird flying overhead. Our sympathy is arrowed for both girls when we feel the alienation they endured.
The fact that Tubby herself was “usually” chosen indicates the recurring situation both girls found themselves in.
When they grew older they went to different schools. Despite the physical separation, Tubby never forgot Tich. They had formed a subtle friendship as a direct result of what they had in common: being excluded and isolated. Tubby feels she gained a sense of revenge in later years when her academic ability shine through. She then felt more superior.
There is a significant pause before the final line which remains isolated from the rest of the poem. We, the reader, are forced to think about the tragic death of Tich. This isolated line gives an added sense of importance.
Your english notes are soo good Áine!
I wish I was doing some of them poems, might even take one of them just because I'm not too keen on the ones we done in class..
- I’ve gone… Suis allé(e)
Je suis allé(e)
- Where? En ville
à la plage
à la poste
à la piscine
- To do what?(pour) acheter des cadeaux/ des timbres
Poster des letters
Voir le dernier film de Harry Potter
Diner au restaurant/ chez Mary
Render visite à Mary
Fêter l’anniversaire de Mary
- With whom? (avec) mon ami(e)
- Will be back… Je rentre (I’m coming home)
Je reviens (I’m coming back)
Je rentrerai (I will come home)
Je reviendrai (I will come back)
De retour (Be back)
Je serai de retour (I will be back)
- When? Avant minuit
dans trois heures
trois quart d’heure
une quart d’heure
avant l’heure du déjeuner
dans une heure environ/ à peu
quelques heures (a few)
- Don’t worry Ne vous inquiétez pas
Ne t’inquiète pas
- Don’t wait for me Ne m’attendez pas
Ne m’attends pas
- Don’t forget that.. N’oubliez pas que…
N’oublie pas que…
- Don’t forget to… N’oubliez pas de… (+ infinitive)
N’oublie pas de…(+ infinitive)
- Mary rang. She will ring back this evening
Mary a téléphone. Elle rappellera ce soir.
- Called by suis passé(e)
Je suis passé(e)
- When? Ce matin
- Why? (pour) te dire bonjour
Te render tes cassettes
T’inviter à déjeuner en ville
Voir si tu voulais venir au ciné
Ça fait longtemps que je ne t’ai pas
Vu(e) (I haven’t seen you for ages)
- But there’s no one home mais il n’y a personne
Il n’y avait personne
Tu n’es pas là
Tu n’étaiz pas là
- What a pity! Quel dommage!
- What a disappointment! Quelle deception!
- Too bad! Tant pis!
- We’ll do it another time ce sera pour une autre fois
- You can still come if you’re free tu peux toujours
Venir si tu es libre
- Ring me Appelle-moi
- Give me a buzz Donne-moi un coup de fil
- Unfortunately Malheureusement
- I won’t be able to Je ne pourrai pas (venir +infinitive)
- It won’t be possible. Ce ne sera pas possible.
- It won’t be possible to.. Il ne sera pas possible de
(venir + infinitive)
- As arranged Comme prevu
- I’m sorry, but.. Je suis désolé(e), mais…
Je regrette, mais…
- Because… Parce que ( + verb)
- Because of… à cause de ( +noun, pronoun)
- I hope you understand J’espère que vous comprenez
Jespère que tu comprends
- Let’s go../ Would you like Ça te dit d’aller(+ infinitive)
To go../ We could go… Si on allait…
- Do you want to go? Tu veux aller
- Would you like to go? Tu aimerais aller
- We could go On pourrait aller
- Why not go? Pourquoi pas aller?
- Do you want to come with us? Veux-tu nous
- Do you want to come with me? Veux-tu
- We could meet… On pourrait se retrouver…
- Meet me… Retrouve-moi
- Meet us… Retrouve-moi
- Where? Devant la gare
Devant la Maison du Tourisme
Au centre commercial
À la piscine
À la plage
À la gare
à la Maison du Jeunes
- O.K.? D’accord?
It's amazing what Word can do. It's way more interesting of you use pretty colours (except I usually get distracted by the colours.)
Everything is better in colour!!
Merci beaucoup pour le(la)(l’(les) = Thank you very much for the…
Je te remercie beaucoup du(de la)(le l’(des) = Thank you very much for the…
Cadeau = present
Disque = disc
Lettre = letter
photo = photo
CD. = cd
Que je viens de recevoir = that I have just received
J’aime beaucoup le(la)(l’(les) = I am very fond of
Et celui-ci (celle-ci) est particulièrement = and this one is particularly…
Intéressant(e) = interesting
Amusant(e) = amusing
Beau/ belle = beautiful
Utile = useful
Tu es très gentil(le) = It is very nice of you
Penser à moi = to think of me
l’ avoir envoyé(e) = have sent it
la semaine prochaine, je vais t’envoyer = Next week, I’ll send you
une photo = a photo
un disque = a disc
un CD de = a CD of
un livre = a book
une revue = a magazine
quelles sortes de = what sort of
photos = photos
disques = discs
livres = books
revues = magazines
CD = CDs
Aimes-tu? = do you like
Je te remercie encore = Thank you again.
Seeing as we don't have that long left I'm just going to throw up whatever I have left.
- Actions & consequences = the things we do or say which cause something to happen
- Civil law = the rules of a country to protect all citizens of that country
- Conscience = the ability to judge what is right and wrong not a little voice or a “feeling” but a deep part of our being, can be blunted or sharpened by use
- Forgiveness = the ability to stop feeling angry towards someone & move towards reconciliation
- Fundamentalism = the view that the beliefs, teachings and especially the sacred text of a particular religion should be taken word foe word or literally
- Influence = something that affects our decision
- Integrity = being totally honest and upright, able to stand up for what you believe
- Judgement = the ability to make a sound decision
- Justice = fairness, refers to righting the inequalities in our world
- Libertarianism = the view that everyone should be free to do as they choose as long as they don’t interfere with the rights of others
- Moral growth = a gradual process moving from childhood-like decision making to adolescence to adulthood
- Moral maturity = the ability to make a moral decision taking into account the consequences and effects on others
- Moral vision = how we see the world especially issues of right and wrong, very often influenced by religion
- Pluralism = the view that groups belonging to different religions can live together and that they can have the freedom to practice without interference
- Respect = having a high regard for something and so treating it with consideration and fairness
- Sin = the Christian term for doing wrong deliberately & breaking our relationship with others and God
- Stewardship = being responsible for caring for all of God’s creation
· Actions of significance = actions/gestures that have special meaning for people
· Communal prayer = praying with others in a community setting
· Contemplation = a form of very deep prayer that does not use words or thought
· Encountering mystery = connecting with something that is mysterious and beyond human understanding
· Icon = a sacred picture, usually on wood, using symbolic colours, used in Orthodox church
· Identity = the unique or distinct characteristics by which a group is recognised
· Participation = being actively involved in worship
· Penitence = prayer admitting wrong doing and asking for God’s forgiveness
· Personal prayer = praying to God by oneself
· Petition = asking God for help with one’s needs or the needs of others
· Places of significance = places or buildings that have a special meaning
· Reflection = thinking deeply about some aspect of life
· Ritual = repeating actions, words, gestures in a set of patters
· Sacrament = a sacred ritual that is a visible sign of God’s presence at the moments of their lives, birth, adulthood, marriage
· Sacredness = a thing or place that is holy with the presence of God and is set apart from ordinary life
· Sign = something – word, image – that carries a message, appeals to intellect, universal
· Symbol = something visible that represents something invisible, appeals to the heart, is personal & not universally understood
· Times of significance = times of year that have special meaning
· Wonder & awe = a feeling inspired by some mystery
· Worship = time set aside to honour and praise God
· Pilgrimage = a journey to a sacred place
· Religious place of worship = gathering place
· Meditation = needs quiet place, proper posture, focal point or focal words
Agnosticism = the view that human beings cannot know for certain whether or not God exists
Atheism = the view that God does not exist
Awe & Wonder = a feeling that comes from the mysterious aspects of life
Childhood Faith = a simple trust in God and an acceptance of one’s parents faith
Faith = a strong inner belief and trust in God
Fundamentalism = the view that a sacred text is a factual account of something and has to be taken literally
Humanism = a view that rejects faith and religion and believes that humanity is the supreme reality, nothing higher, know everything through human reason
Materialism = the view that nothing is real except physical matter
Mature Faith = a very close personal relationship with God, absolute trust, very dedicated
Meaning = having a sense of purpose in life
Monotheism = belief in one God
Polytheism = belief in more than 1 God
Reflection = the ability to think deeply about things
Religious Belief = a set of ideas about God
Religious Practice = the way people express their faith
Secularism = the view that organised religion should have no influence in society
· Religious belief in Ireland V Europe. Still strong in Ireland but practice is falling – 50% or less attend Church on a week but Africa is up
· Must know how religion was practiced in the past – rosary, Angelus, never miss Mass, Lent. Big change in 1962 – Second Vatican Council 1962-1965. Called by John XXIII. Brought many changes esp. in Mass &building style of church
· What influences young people – parents, peers, media, music.
· Search for meaning & where people find meaning –work, social life, family, material things, religion. Human beings have an inbuilt need to find meaning/purpose/happiness
· Images of God = mental picture. Christians get it from O.T. (eagle, potter etc.) N.T. (forgiving father, shepherd etc.). We also get images from own experience
· Challenges to faith e.g. science, especially on the origins of the world. Galileo/ Darwin. – Universe began 18 billion years ago and earth formed 4.5 billion yrs ago, compare this to 6 days. – Christians now accept that the bible is a poetic account intended to convey important messages
· Other challenges to faith – secularism/humanism
· Must know story of a person of faith e.g. Mother Teresa
· Born in Yugoslavia in 1910
· Decided to become a Catholic nun
· Trained by Mercy Sisters in Rathfarnham, Dublin
· Became a secondary school principal in Calcutta
· Referred to 10 September 1946 as her “day of decision”. Asked permission of her superiors to work with the poor in the slums of Calcutta
· Was given permission to do so. Trained as a nurse and returned to Calcutta in 1948
· Established a new religious order, the Missionaries of Charity, with the Pope’s approval in 1950. All sisters wear white saris edged with blue stripes. In addition to vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, they take an extra vow pledging service to the poor
· Opened first home for the dying in 1952. Expended services as the order increased in size. Set up hospitals to care for lepers, and schools for slum children
· Was awarded Padmashri (Lord of the Lotus) by the Indian government for her work with the poor
· Was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 1979
· Died in 1997. Was mourned by countless millions. Her religious order now cares for the poor in over 200 centres worldwide.