If this does turn out to be Neandertal in origin, yet another major difference between us goes for a fall.
There was the Neandertal "house" found a few months ago where they described painted tusks of which we've heard nothing more about sadly.
Then there is the discovery in Italy IIRC where they've found large deposits of bird bones and feathers. Birds that were hunted it seems not for their meat, but for their flight feathers. They seemed to have a liking for shiny black and pure white feathers and were very specific about those species with said colours and ignored ones that didn't, so it sounds like decoration or some other cultural reason.
Then the Spanish pigments and pendants long before we show up on the scene.
I suspect more of this stuff will show up. I further suspect they used more fugitive materials that simply haven't survived. Wood, leather etc. When you look at a Neandertal tool assemblage there's an awful lot of scrapers and the like. Woodworking type stuff. Sapiens stuff has survived better because we used more stone, bone and painted in stable environments like caves and we did it more recently. On very very rare occasions we may catch a glimpse of what has been lost. EG the 400,000 year old beautifully fashioned and weighted wooden spears from Germany.