not great but ok
By W.H AudenBackground:
This poem was written by W.H Auden in the reaction to the death of a very close friend. The poem is extremely popular and famous. It is often used at funerals and was most famously used in the movie “Four Weddings and a Funeral”.
One of the characters recited the poem at the funeral of his friend.
Theme of death, the poet describes his reaction to the death of his very close friend. The poet feels that his life is not worth living anymore because of his friends death.
“The stars are not wanted now, put out everyone. For nothing now can come to any good”The poet wants everything in the world to stop. He orders in the opening stanza that;
“Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone”, “Prevent the dog from barking”The poet is stunned and deeply shocked by his death. It’s clear that he was very close to his friend.
“He was my North, my South, my East and West”He is very emotional when he says:
“I thought love would last forever, I was wrong”Death is viewed very negatively in this poem and the poem suggests that there is no life for those who remain, after the person has died.
“Pack up the moon, and dismantle the sun”I find the image of death very depressing in this poem, because the poet suggests that there is no hope.
In the first two stanzas, the poet orders that life should stop. He demands that the clocks, telephone, piano be stopped, so that the coffin and the mourners can come. The poet is very upset and angry in those stanzas.
“Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead scribbling on the sky, the message He Is Dead”The third stanza of the poem conveys a different tone. The poet is emotionally upset and reveals how deeply he loved his friend.
“He was my North, my South, my East and West”The tone also reveals the poets bitterness. He thought love would last forever but
“I was wrong”The poet is in a hopeless and depressed mood in the final stanza. He paints a picture of the world where there are no stars, moon, sun, sea, or land - where there is NOTHING. His despair and deep depression is seen in the final line.
“for nothing now can come to any good”Structure:
The poet comprises 4 stanzas with four lines in each one. This combined with the regular end of line rhyme gives the poem a steady rhythm and even structure.
End of Line Rhyme:
The end of line 1 & 2, line 3 & 4 rhyme in every stanza.
Telephone/bone, Drum/come, Overheard/dead, Doves/gloves, West/rest, Song/wrong, One/sun, Wood/good.
I like the rhyme scheme in this poem, and it makes the poem easy to read aloud.
The poet uses some very striking visual images.
“pack up the moon”, “dismantle the sun”, “policemen wear black cotton gloves”
The imagery in this poem not only appeals to the eye but also to the ear. In stanza one there are many wonderful aural images.
“clocks”, “telephone”, “dog barking”, “ silence the piano”, “muffled drum”
The poem is also remarkable for its use of striking metaphors. Stanza 3 is most notable, the poet uses series of metaphors to describe the depth of his love for his dead friend.
He describes his friend as “my working week and my Sunday rest”. I think he is suggesting here that he spent all his time with his friend.
He also describes him as “my North, my South, my East and West”. This is a very unusual metaphor, again highlighting how much his friend meant to him.
“My noon, my midnight, my talk, my song”
Hope they help
1918 - 1933Adolf Hitler was born in Austria but moved to Germany to fight for them in WWI . When Germany signed the surrender in 1918, Hitler was in hospital and it angered him greatly. He, like many other Germans disagreed and called the politicians who signed it the November Criminals.
Germany then was run by a new government called the Weimer Republic. It was very unpopular with the people. Meanwhile, Hitler became leader of the Nazi party. He disagreed with the way the governmentt were running the country so he planned a revolution. This was known as the Munich Putsch. He failed though and he was jailed for 5 months. While in jail, he wrote a book with all his beliefs called Mein Kampf. Some of his beliefs were:
He hated Jews, and blamed them for all Germany’s problems
He dispised communism also
Germany needed lebensraum (living space)
He believed a group of humans were superior, known as the Aryan race
In 1929, the Wall St. Crash caused huge problems all over the world. In Germany, unemployment rose from 1,000,000 in 1929 to 6,000,000 in 1932. This put huge pressure on the government and led to lots of people hating them.
All the time, Hitler’s Nazi party were growing and by 1933 were the biggest party in Germany. Eventually, in 1933, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. This was the equvilant of being Prime Minister.
He could now go about implementing his policies in Germany:
Break up the Treaty of Versailles
Cleanse the nation of inferior people like the Jewish
Improve the economy
Hitler also began to use propaganda to make people believe his ideas.
Not too much his early life really
W.b Yeats When you are old
When You Are Old
By W.B YeatsThemes:
1. Unrequited Love - Yeats was passionately in love with Maud Gonne, for her beauty and her inner qualities.
“one man loved the pilgrim soul in you”But she rejected him many times. In this poem, Yeats imagines Maud as an old woman, reflecting back on her life and loves. He hopes that she will realise how much he loved her, he loved her the most - “Sorrow” of her “changing face”
Yeats points out that many men only loved her for her beauty - “false love”.
2. Old Age -Yeats highlights the theme of old age by imagining what Maud will look like
“old”, “grey”, “nodding by the fire”He imagines that she will be a lonely old woman if she doesn’t accept his love NOW.
“Murmur, a little sadly, how love fled and paced upon the mountains overhead”Tone/Mood:
There is a very personal intimate tone in this poem. Yeats adresses Maud as ‘you’ - he is speaking directly to her.
Loving tone in the poem where Yeats expresses his love for her - “loved the pilgrim soul”
Tone of sadness and loneliness as the old woman reflects on her beauty and youth that has passed.
“Soft look your eyes had once”Final stanza, the tone is very sad, lonely as the woman realises that love has gone forever, it is now hidden in the mountains & stars. She can see it but never touch it.
The use of alliteration, adds to the pace and mood of the poem, making it memorable.
sleep, soft (Stanza 1)
glad, grace (Stanza 2)
bending, beside, bars (Stanza 3)
End of Line Rhyme:
1st & 4th line and 2nd and 3rd line rhyme in every stanza.
Images of - Old Age - Old Maud
- Beauty - Young Maud
- Fire - Passion
Love is seen as a living person, a man who “hid his face”
Across the barricades summary
Across The BarricadesThe novel has an interesting opening. Sadie meets up with Kevin after 3 years. They go for coffee and catch up on the latest news. However, it is not simply a case of 2 old friends meeting up for a chat. Sadie and Kevin live in war torn Belfast and are from opposite ends of the religious divide. Prtestant and Catholic.
Hints of the conflict are given in the first chapter, description of “burnt cars, buses and armoured vehicles”. Tension on the streets. Our curiosity is arisen because we the readers want to see, if it will get any worse, or if it will affect the lives of Sadie and Kevin.
Also, in the opening chapter, Kevin and Sadie decide to renew their friendship, there is even a hint of romance. The reader is in SUSPENCE, it is a dangerous relationship, because of their different backgrounds.
“They were embarking on something dangerous” The reader wants to go on, and find out what happens next, and how the relationship will work out.
After all the trouble, conflicts, Kevin decides to leave Belfast.
“I’ve got to go away, I can’t stay here any longer, I’m sick of bombs”The reader welcomes his decision, because we feel sorry for him, after all that has happened.
The ending of the novel is emotional/upsetting in one way, as we see him ‘say farewell’ to all of his family. We wonder will we see them again.
Brede meets him, and again it is sad to see her saying goodbye to him.
“Well, Kevin, I’ll miss you”
The ending works well also, because the final strands of the plot are tied up. Kate Kelly turns up and tells Kevin that “she was sorry”. She admits that she “made a mistake about the box” (of ammunition). Kate reveals that it was Brian Rafferty; who forced her to lie about the box.
“I wouldn’t have told the lie otherwise”Once more, we the readers, see how horrible Rafferty was and we are happy that Kevin is getting away from him at last.
“It was all of it behind him now, Kate and Brian Rafferty and the beatings up and the bombs”
The reader is happily surprised again, on the final page of the novel, when Sadie turns up at the docks. It’s very exciting when she reveals that she is going with Kevin. He isa pleasantly surprised aswell.
“That’s the best news I had in months”Although the novel contained much suffering, pain and conflict, it has a happy ending. Kevin and Sadie walk hand in hand, to the “while waiting ship”. We feel that they have the chance of a new, trouble-free life, in England.
By Siegfreid SassoonTheme:
Anti-war poem. The poet is angry at the officers, (majors, generals, colonels) the higher reanks in the army who had privileged lives,
“guzzling and gulping in the best hotels”While the young soldiers fought at the front line and lost their lives, in World War 1.
“Reading the roll of honour; poor young chap”Thousands of young men lost their lives, while the officers,
“Toddle safely home and die - in bed”Tone/Mood:
Sassoon is bitter and angry at the officers. He mocks them, their appearance.
“fat”, “bald”, “short of breath”, “puffy petulant faces”The tone is extremely ironic. He speaks in the tone of an army major, or pretending he wants to be one. This allows him to show us what the army majors are like.
“speed glum heroes up the line to death”
‘Base’ Details. There is a pun on the word, ‘Base’. Base can mean ‘army base’, ‘headquarters’ or base also refers to something that is inferior, unworthy, low standard. Sassoon is suggesting that the army majors are base, base in character, unworthy people.
Regular end of line rhyme pattern. Every second line rhymes - breath/death, base/face, dead/bed, chap/scrap.
Rhyme adds to the meaning of the poem.
Reading/Roll/ - rolling sound - indicates all who died in the war.
“guzzling”, “gulping” indicates that the officers are only interested in drinking, only having a good time.
Unattractive visual images of the majors.
“scarlet majors”, “puffy petulant face”
This is info on cloths of heaven by w.b yeats followed by a compare and contrast between cloths of heaven and when u are old both by w.b yeats
The Cloths Of Heaven
By W.B Yeats
In this short sweet lyric poem, the poet W.B Yeats expresses his deep love for Maud Gonne. Yeats fell madly in love with Maud Gonne, and he was in love with her, all his life. However, it was not a happy love story for Yeats.
In this beautiful poem, Yeats points out that if he had all the riches (money) in the world
“Had I the heaven’s embroidered cloths”He would give them to her, because he loves her so much.
“I would spread the cloths under your feet”However, Yeats points out to his beloved that he is just a poor poet, who does not have any material wealth.
“But I being poor”Because he is not rich, he offers to give her, his dreams instead.
“Have only my dreams”In many ways, giving her his dreams,
“I have spread my dreams under your feet”Is far more significant, more important than giving her material wealth, or gifts. In giving her his dreams, he is giving her a very IMPORTANT PART OF HIMSELF. Therefore, he is showing how much in love she is.
“I have spread my dreams under your feet”I think it is more important that Yeats is prepared to give his most important wishes, hopes(dreams) to Maud Gonne.
It is worth noting that W.B Yeats is also afraid that Maud Gonne may hurt him, or reject his offer.
“Tread softly because you tread on my dreams”He warns her to treat him, and his dreams with care, because he realises she has the power to hurt him.
This is interesting because we know that Maud Gonne did not return Yeats’ love. She did not feel the same way about him.
This is called UNREQUITED LOVE (one person doesn’t return the love). Perhaps Yeats was aware of this, when he wrote this love poem.
In the last line of the poem, he is not very confident about this love.
The poem is very emotional and Yeats expresses his love.
At the opening of this short lyric, Yeats is in a wishful mood. He wishes (hopes) that he had the ‘heaven’s embroidered’ cloth.
His tone changes to one of acceptance, when he realises that he is “only poor” and could never afford to give her anything expensive.
“But I being poor”The poet is in a very loving/romantic mood when he offers to
“Spread my dreams under your feet”His tone dramatically changes again in the final line, when he becomes afraid, insecure, and warns her, not to treat him badly.
“Tread softly because you tread on my dreams”He accepts that he is very much in love but that she can hurt him.
The title of this poem, and indeed the image of “heaven’s embroidered cloths” is a metaphor for the wealth, material riches of this world, money, gifts.
The metaphor of the cloths is spread throughout the poem.
Line 1 - “cloths”
Line 3 - “dark cloths”
Line 5 - “spread the cloths”
Line 7 - “spread my dreams”
The poem is rich in vibrant visual imagery. The poet creates a beautiful vivid picture of the “embroidered cloths”
He uses colour, light and shade to suggest its brilliance. He refers to;
“golden and silver light”End Of Line Rhyme:
“blue, dim, dark cloths”
“night, light, half-light”
The poet creates a very effective and striking end of line rhyme with repetition of the SAME WORDS at the end of the lines
Line 1 & 3 - “cloths”
Line 2 & 4 - “lights”
Line 5 & 7 - “feet”
Line 6 & 8 - “dreams”
The poet uses internal rhyme and assonance (vowel rhyme) very strikingly in the line,
“Of night, light, and the half light”
Run On Lines:
Line 3 runs very effectively into line 4.
“dim” “dark” (D sound)
“softly” “dreams” (S sound)
There is a dominant use of a broad ‘o’ sound throughout the poem.
“cloths” “of” “poor” “only” “softly”
This slows down the rhythm of the poem.
Also ‘I’ sounds - “night” “light” “I”
He Wishes For The Cloths Of Heaven
Compare and Contrast
When You Are OldThe Cloths Of Heaven:
In this poem W.B Yeats is expressing his love for Maud Gonne.
He wishes he had all the riches in the world.
“Had I the heavens embroidered cloths”To share with her, so that he could show her how much he loved her. He basically wishes for a piece of heaven, something that no one else could ever give her, to make her realise he would do anything to make her love him He wanted to give her something unique and impossible.
“Had I the heavens embroidered cloths”However, Yeats is only poor and doesn’t have much to offer.
“I would spread the cloths under your feet”
“But I being poor”What he is offering is his dreams, which may not be all the riches or “heaven’s embroidered cloths” but they are special to him and it is a very personal and hard thing to do, offering someone your dreams.
“I have only my dreams. I have spread my dreams under your feet, Tread softly, because you tread on my dreams”
When You Are Old:
In ‘The Cloths Of Heaven’ the theme is offering her all he has, and showing his love for her.
In ‘When You Are Old’ the theme is different. Yeats seems a lot more bitter towards Maud. In my opinion, ‘The Cloths Of Heaven’ shows Yeats offering himself to Maud, in a hope that she will accept him. He warns her not to hurt him “Tread softly” in ‘When You Are Old’ Yeats has no more hope of Maud accepting him, he is not offering himself anymore now. He is now trying to make her realise that what she has done is a big mistake and he warns that she will regret rejecting him.
“Murmur, a little sadly, how love fledHe is saying because she has rejected him, when she is old, by the time she regrets it, Love will have already passed and it will be unreachable.
And paced upon the mountains overhead
And hid his face, amid a crowd of stars”
“And hid his face amid a crowd of stars”The stars are unreachable.
In ‘Cloths Of Heaven’ the main theme is Love, but in ‘When You Are Old’ the main theme is Unrequited Love.
Meine schule heist _____ ==>My school is called ______
Es ist eine Gesamtschule ==>It is a comprehensive school
Es ist eine gemischte Schule mit ungefahr (X) Schülern und (Y) Lehrerin ==> It is a mixed school with about (X number of) pupils and (Y number of) teachers.
Die Schule beginnt um funf vor neun täglich ==> The school begins at around 5 to 9 daily
Die erste Stunde beginnt um neun Uhr ==>The first period begins at 9 o’clock
Eine Stunde dauert vierzig minuten ==> A class lasts 40 minutes
Ich become immer schlecht/gute Noten ==> I get terrible/good grades (test scores)
Mein Lieblingsfach ist ____ ==> My favourite subject is _____
Ich finde die Uniform furchtbar ==> I find the uniform horrible
Es ist unbequem und altmodisch ==> It is uncomfortable and old-fashioned
Wir tragen ein Uniform ==> We wear a uniform
Wir haben zwei Pauzen täglich ==> We have two breaks every day
Die erste Pauze dauert 15 Minuten und die zweite Pauze dauert 30 Minuten ==> The first break lasts 15 minutes and the second break lasts 30 minutes.
Irisch ==> Irish
Englisch ==> English
Geschichte ==> History
Erdkunde ==> Geography
Mathematik ==> Maths
Naturnwischenschaften ==> Science (All three sciences)
Deutsch ==> German
Technikal Graphik ==> Technical Graphics
Okay here is some geography notes on population
Demography is the sudy of population.
1 Population density
this is the number of people per square kilometer. It is an average figure.
2 Population distribution
This is the way that population is spread out accross the land. It can be evenly or unevenly spread. e.g the population in Ireland is uneven, the west have few people and dublin has a very high population.
3 Population Patterns
The are the order or shape the population makes. There are three basic patterns.
(a) nucleated or clustered.
This is where people live in one area e.g towns are a nucleated settlement.
(b) Linear or ribboned
This is where people live in a line along the side of a road or a river e.g. the river Rhine has lead a linear pattern of cities along its banks.
This is tipical of rural farming areas where people are spread over a wide area e.g. Rural Leitrim
How does the population grow?
More babies born than people dieing causes the population to grow it is called natural change.
what effects the total population in an area?
This changes the distribution of world population. Mirgration causes an increase of population in countries where people go to. e.g Ireland. However Migration does not effect world population
What is birth rate?
This is when we count live births per thousand per year. So if there were 20 births per thousand people it would be 2% (20/1000 = 2/100 = 2%)
What is death rate?
It is counting the number of deaths per thousand per year. e.g 10 deaths per thousand (10/1000 = 1/100 = 1%)
How do I get natural change?
I subtract the deaths from the births. If there are more births we have a natural increase but if there are more deaths we have a natural decrease.
Population Growth is not the same throughout the world. First world countries like Germany and France have negative growth were as third world countries like India and Brazil have a Population explosion.
Why are there large pupulation in the worlds poorest counties?
Modern Medicine like vaccinations have helped lower the death rate
Clean Water By sinking a well in a village which provides clean water can have a dramatic effect on the death rate. The biggest killer of babies in the third world today is dehydration from diarrhoea.
What are the stages of Population growth?
This is the predictable changes that the population of a country will go through:
1 High stationary stage
Birth and death rates are high little change in population. Third world.
2 Early expanding stage
Birth rate remains high and the death rate falls rapidly. Developing world.Population explosion occurs here.
3 Late expanding stage
The death rate remains low. Birth rate falls rapidly, population growth begins to slow down.
4 Low stationary stage
The birth rate remains low, death rate is still very low, low population growth.
5 Senile stage
Birth rate falls below death rate. Population decrease. e.g. Germany
(sorry couldn't find graph with senile stage)
I have some more notes to do with why some areas have high or low population that i can get for you but that is most of my population growth.
Just a few notes our teacher gave us for unseen poetry and prose. She said we can have answers actually prepared before we go in, even if we can't understand the poem. For example, if a question says "Do you like this poem? Why/why not?" You can have an answer prepared saying you like the poets style/use of personification/metaphors etc.
Irish Prose and Poetry notes:
ENGLISHIs é mo thuairim
In my opinionFeictear dom
It seems to meI dtús báire
I agree withCeapaim
I thinkIs cosúil go bhfuil an dán seo
It seems that the poem isAr an taobh eile
On the other handAr chuma ar bith
Of courseGo háirthe
EspeciallyGo bhfios dom
As far as I knowIs bocht an scéal é
It’s a sad storyIs beag é mo mheas air
I don’t think much of itTá a fhios ag an saol
Everybody knowsAr deireadh thiar
FinallyDar leis an ___
According to the ___Ní bhíonn in aon rud ach seal
Nothing lasts foreverSa chéad/dara/triú alt
In the first/second/third paragraphLéiríonn an t-údar dúinn
The author shows usCreideann sé/sí
He/she believes thatLuann an scríbhneoir
The writer mentionsDéanann an t-údar cur síos ar
The author describesTá go leor fianaise sa sliocht
There is plenty of evidence in the passageMar gheall ar
AboutIs féidir leat ionannú leis an pearsa
You can identify with the characterTréithe na phearsanna
Traits of the charactersAmadán
CowardTeideal an dáin
Title of the poemTéama an dáin
Theme of the poemSa chéad/dara/tríú véarsa
In the 1st/2nd/3rd verseStíl an fhile
Style of the poetCasta
PityIs breá liom an cur síos ar …
I love the description of...Tá an file ag caint faoi
The poet is talking aboutLuann an file
The poet mentionsThaitin an dán seo go mór liom
I really liked the poemÁibhéil
personificationBlas an dáin
tone of the poem